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Old 08-17-2012, 11:16 AM   #46
sjreilly
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I am more concerned with runaway processes creating log files that fill partitions - that's why I have three partions on servers - to help prevent the server from falling over.

And on desktops / and /home
 
Old 08-17-2012, 11:45 AM   #47
frieza
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sjreilly View Post
I am more concerned with runaway processes creating log files that fill partitions - that's why I have three partions on servers - to help prevent the server from falling over.

And on desktops / and /home
indeed, if /var is i'ts own separate partition and fills with logs, it won't crash your system, but if /var is under the same partition as /, and / fills, it can bring your server to a grinding halt.
 
Old 08-17-2012, 12:03 PM   #48
Aunnix
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Originally Posted by theNbomr View Post
Many ISP's limit your data throughput to some number. My ISP has different levels of service with different speeds and different
monthly GB transfer limits, for different prices, of course. I once had my service cut off temporarily for exceeding my quota. My provider currently has limits of 125, 200, 400, 500 & 1000 GB per month for their various plans. These numbers were originally much smaller (I think as low as 2GB per month). Now that I've checked those numbers, I see that they also publish both their upload and download speeds, so maybe they've changed their policies regarding servers.
--- rod.

Ok, I will see if I can find out this information in the TOS or something before I call them. Is there a way I can check the history of the data throughput to see how close I am coming to my quota? Or, is that something the ISP can provide?
 
Old 08-17-2012, 12:11 PM   #49
Aunnix
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You need to remember that partitions in Linux are not like partitions in Windows. In Windows, every drive/partition is completely separate from the rest. You have your C: drive, you have your D: drive, E:, F:, G:, and so on. Each drive/partition is completely independent, and the kicker is, each one has its own directory structure. If your OS is on C:, it will only ever be on C:. Getting your C:\Program Files to actually live on D: is not exactly easy, for example.

Linux is different in that there is ONE directory structure, which can be distributed across multiple drives if you so desire. The root of the directory structure is "/", EVERYTHING, no matter what physical device/partition it lives on, is in a subdirectory of "/" (or a subdirectory of a subdirectory, etc). You will always have an /etc directory, you will always have a /var directory, /home directory, /root directory, and many others. It is up to you whether you want these directories to lie on their OWN partition, or to simply be subdirectories of / on /'s partition.

What the above people are saying is that you might want to place /home on its own drive, separate from everything else in /. Whether you want to do the same with /etc or /var is up to you. If you don't put them on their own partition, they will still exist, they will just live on the same partition as / rather than their own, separate partition.

Setting up the OS on a third drive outside the RAID is quite easy, and in many ways it's actually easier than trying to install everything on the RAID. The reason is if in the future you decide you want to wipe the OS and install a new one, getting the new OS to recognize and correctly configure the RAID DURING the installation process can often be tricky. However, you can easily install the OS on the single drive, and then rebuild the RAID once you're in the OS and re-mount it where it's supposed to be.

I did this exact thing recently. I had a Fedora 10 system, OS on one drive, /home on a 4-drive 3TB RAID 10. I wiped the OS and installed CentOS 6.3 in its place. CentOS did NOT recognize or configure the RAID properly during install. When I was up and running everything was on the one boot drive, and fdisk told me I had four 1.5TB drives just sitting there. However, once I was in the OS I was able to use mdadm to scan and rebuild the RAID 10, edit /etc/fstab to mount it back in /home, rebooted, and my home directory, all of its contents, and all of its settings was exactly how I had left them on Fedora 10.

This is the advantage of separating parts of the filesystem onto other partitions. /home is usually the first one to make it onto its own partition, and depending on what you do with the system you may decide to move others as well.

Makes sense. I just went to Micro Center and grabbed a used 60GB IDE drive to run the OS on, so it looks like I'm planning the same setup as you basically. /, /root (if it's seperate from /), /var, /etc will all be on the 60GB while my 2 750GB HDDs will be /home in Raid 0 or 1 (I still need to do some research on the raid setup, but Micro Center told me I don't need any Raid cards for 0 or 1 so I figured I'd go that route).
 
Old 08-17-2012, 12:20 PM   #50
Aunnix
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Originally Posted by frieza View Post
a standard desktop install can get away with 2 partitions, / and swap, though keeping separate partitions for /home, /var and /etc, although not necessary can make any persistent changes to OS settings, personal files, and logs and home directories able to survive a wipe and reinstall of the OS in case something gets hosed. this is why separate partitions is often seen, though a bare minimum of / and swap is all that is technically necessary on modern hardware, on older units a separate /boot partition was needed at the beginning of the drive to hold the kernel and second stage boot loader in a section of hard drive accessible by the BIOS, but that is irrelevant nowadays.

I see. So, I plan to use the /var and /etc partitions or directories because it seems like (although they are not required) the system may run a little bit smoother so it can fall back and utilize those directories when needed. Perhaps it may save me some troubles later?

I did grab a 60GB HDD to install outside of the 750GB HDDs, so the OS will be on the 60GB. Would you suggest putting the /var and /etc directories on the 750GB where the /home will be so they are on seperate partitions from the OS? At the moment, I'm thinking only /home on the 750GB HDDs and ALL OS files/partitions/directories on the 60GB for a clean OS reinstall later (if needed).
 
Old 08-17-2012, 12:26 PM   #51
Aunnix
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Originally Posted by frieza View Post
indeed, if /var is i'ts own separate partition and fills with logs, it won't crash your system, but if /var is under the same partition as /, and / fills, it can bring your server to a grinding halt.
If I wish to put /var on the same hard drive as / (the OS), a seperate partition on the 60GB hDD can be created, correct? Like I said, the 750GB HDDs I only want for data storage and mirroring. I figured the 60GB HDD can be for keeping the OS files organized and seperate from the the 750GB drives.
 
Old 08-17-2012, 12:26 PM   #52
frieza
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Aunnix View Post
I see. So, I plan to use the /var and /etc partitions or directories because it seems like (although they are not required) the system may run a little bit smoother so it can fall back and utilize those directories when needed. Perhaps it may save me some troubles later?

I did grab a 60GB HDD to install outside of the 750GB HDDs, so the OS will be on the 60GB. Would you suggest putting the /var and /etc directories on the 750GB where the /home will be so they are on seperate partitions from the OS? At the moment, I'm thinking only /home on the 750GB HDDs and ALL OS files/partitions/directories on the 60GB for a clean OS reinstall later (if needed).
actually i would put all 3 on the 750 gig, depending on what you are doing with the machine, a LAMP server (linux apache mysql php for instance) will use /var for mysql and can be configured to have the Document root (the top level folder where the your are stored) either as /var/www (default) or somewhere in individual user's /home directory
 
Old 08-17-2012, 12:33 PM   #53
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Originally Posted by frieza View Post
actually i would put all 3 on the 750 gig, depending on what you are doing with the machine, a LAMP server (linux apache mysql php for instance) will use /var for mysql and can be configured to have the Document root (the top level folder where the your are stored) either as /var/www (default) or somewhere in individual user's /home directory

hmm.. ok... First and foremost, it will be a web (LAMP) server. If I put /var and /etc on the 750GB HDDs with /home, will this be an issue trying to setup a file server and/or other server packages? Or, if I do put them on the 60GB OS drive will that be a problem for the web server package? Also, do I have to designate a certain amount of space for these partitions/directories, and if so, how much would you suggest?
 
Old 08-17-2012, 12:39 PM   #54
frieza
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the file server part depends on how you wish to serve the files? with other linux machines, or with windows machines or both, however usually files are served from within individual home directories, or a common share point, which could be also simply another 'dummy' user's home directory.
 
Old 08-17-2012, 12:51 PM   #55
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I am going to suggest something completely different. Why not set your machine up as a bare metal hypervisor and then install a bunch of VMs to play with? This way you can segregate tasks, experiment, use snapshotting, etc. I have done that and it works really really well. I am using VMware ESXi 5.0 on my home server. You could also look into XenServer. Have a look.
 
Old 08-17-2012, 12:54 PM   #56
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the file server part depends on how you wish to serve the files? with other linux machines, or with windows machines or both, however usually files are served from within individual home directories, or a common share point, which could be also simply another 'dummy' user's home directory.
ok.. well I'll have to look into that part as well. Basically, I'm imagining a scenario would be like this (whether it be an office document or mp3 or video)...

I sit down and decide I want to watch a movie on my windows 7 computer (everyday use computer)
login to the server from the windows 7 machine
locate and select a file (move.avi) on the /home partition/directory and execute
it plays it on my windows 7 machine

I haven't looked into or heard anything really about "how to serve the files" as I thought once you select a file path on the linux machine it will play it on the device I'm selecting it with, lol. Probably COMPLETELY wrong though.. I'd like them to be accessible on both Windows and Linux. I don't run any MACs so that platform isn't a big deal I guess.

Last edited by Aunnix; 08-17-2012 at 12:55 PM.
 
Old 08-17-2012, 12:56 PM   #57
Aunnix
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Originally Posted by keymoo View Post
I am going to suggest something completely different. Why not set your machine up as a bare metal hypervisor and then install a bunch of VMs to play with? This way you can segregate tasks, experiment, use snapshotting, etc. I have done that and it works really really well. I am using VMware ESXi 5.0 on my home server. You could also look into XenServer. Have a look.

Thanks. I'll check it out and see if it may fit my needs better.
 
Old 08-17-2012, 01:01 PM   #58
suicidaleggroll
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Aunnix View Post
Makes sense. I just went to Micro Center and grabbed a used 60GB IDE drive to run the OS on, so it looks like I'm planning the same setup as you basically. /, /root (if it's seperate from /), /var, /etc will all be on the 60GB while my 2 750GB HDDs will be /home in Raid 0 or 1 (I still need to do some research on the raid setup, but Micro Center told me I don't need any Raid cards for 0 or 1 so I figured I'd go that route).
You would want RAID1.

RAID0 is stripped, so anything you write is split between the two drives (half on each). This means that if you lose either drive, you lose everything on the entire array. There is no redundancy, however your array will be the sum of all parts, so two 750GB drives will give you a 1.5TB array.

RAID1 is mirrored, so anything you write is copied to both drives. This means that if you lose either drive, the system will fall back on the other seamlessly. The unfortunate part is because you're mirroring, the array will be the size of one drive (750GB).
 
Old 08-17-2012, 01:04 PM   #59
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Aunnix View Post
ok.. well I'll have to look into that part as well. Basically, I'm imagining a scenario would be like this (whether it be an office document or mp3 or video)...

I sit down and decide I want to watch a movie on my windows 7 computer (everyday use computer)
login to the server from the windows 7 machine
locate and select a file (move.avi) on the /home partition/directory and execute
it plays it on my windows 7 machine

I haven't looked into or heard anything really about "how to serve the files" as I thought once you select a file path on the linux machine it will play it on the device I'm selecting it with, lol. Probably COMPLETELY wrong though.. I'd like them to be accessible on both Windows and Linux. I don't run any MACs so that platform isn't a big deal I guess.
You would probably just set up a SAMBA share on the Linux box. On Windows it will just show up as a shared drive, which you can map to a local drive letter (eg: P:\ will be a remote mount of the Linux SAMBA share, which might be /home/winshare on the Linux system). At that point, you can play it on the Windows machine as if it was local. I have my home set up this way. One Linux server hosting all of the media and serving it through both SAMBA and NFS. I then have several client machines, both Windows and Linux, who remote mount the shares and can play the media as if it's local. Even iTunes has its archive set to the shared location, so any time I buy music through iTunes it automatically moves it onto the Linux box through the share.
 
Old 08-17-2012, 01:07 PM   #60
theNbomr
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Aunnix View Post
Is there a way I can check the history of the data throughput to see how close I am coming to my quota? Or, is that something the ISP can provide?
Your ISP may provide this information. I found out about an unpublished, unadvertised way of accessing this information using some backdoor access to, I think, my cable modem. I assume this is also where the ISP gets it's data. At any rate, shortly after my service was cut off, I implemented a primitive system in my server/firewall that makes use of iptables' throughput logging to keep tabs on my usage. It wasn't too difficult and is pretty low overhead. If you have a stand-alone firewall box, it might record such data.

--- rod.
 
  


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