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Given those sizings, it should fit pretty easily if you have been rotating logs and such. "df -h" will tell you how much free space you have/need.
Best done from a liveCD - "cp -a /media/sda4/* /media/sda3/var/" (depending on mount points) should do it if you have the space. Fix the fstab to remove the /var entry and try a reboot.
If you don't have the space, try and make it fit - clean out logs to make /var smaller, and get rid of (big) crap out of /home usually works best.
Else you'll need to delete/reduce the swap allocation and create a new partition for /var and copy it there. Then fix fstab again - potentially for / and swap as well depending if you use UUID/LABEL.
Edit: might be best to clean out the /media/sda3/var/ prior to the copy. It may well have old data in it you haven't been able to see due to the mount of sda4.
Grab a livecd, mount the var and the root partitions and copy the data from the var partition to the var folder (cp - vax *) inside your root partition. Then remove the /var line from your fstab file on the root partition. Unmount, reboot, solved.
Of course, while you are at it, you could create an extended partition, then create a new var partition and copy the data back. You may (and probably) still need to fix up your fstab.
Next time, make sure to create any partition beyond the third one a logical partition; That way you can have fourteen or fifteen rather than just four.
Edit: aargh, I need to start reading; answer already posted by syg00.
A quick way to add a distro is to use a live distro .iso image.
Some live distros are really quite complete and updatable (slax for instance, but there are others - tinycore, slitaz, zenwalk).
You can download the .iso image for these and mount it then copy it to a partition that has enough space and add the particulars to grub (root, kernel,initrd) and by adding a few parametres you can have the distro as a "live" distro entirely in RAM or as fully mounted. It's particularly handy to have a distro running in RAM in order to do work on partitions, make backup images, etc.
(A reminder - to mount .iso image: mount -o loop /path/an.iso /mount/path and to unmount: umount /path/an.iso )