Here is the (happy) end of story.
Being afraid to loose the information from the disc - I took the HD away from Linux machine, put it to the Windows one.
With the free program R-Linux (http://www.r-tt.com/
) I restored all files to the spare HD.
Then I could breeze.
And after all of it I used efschk ( as Fedore suggested ) and everything has been restored.
a) Even for experient users Linux in the beginnig looks very dangerous
b) More dangerous than it is