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When you unpacked the tar.gz file it should of came with a "Read Me" file or a "Install" file.
The instructions in that file should help you as to what to type into your terminal to install boost-
YUM is the utility to use with Fedora to install, update and upgrade your system.
Here's a few article's:
For boost I think you need boost-devel
Looking at the boost-devel package, it requires the boost package of the same version. Here is what the boost-devel package requires:
If this doesn't help try running: