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I've recently installed Kubuntu 12.04 on one of my desktop computers, dual-booted with Windows 7. Both operating systems were newly installed after I replaced the machine's motherboard and CPU. For the most part, all is going well; the only problem I've run into (so far) is that I'm getting no audio to the speakers. I've tried from both OSes. I've tried from Amarok, mplayer, Dragon Player, and Windows Media Player. I've tried web-based video, mp3 files, .mpg files, .wmv files, and DVDs. No sound to the speakers (or to headphones).
I've installed numerous different operating systems, including several Windows versions and several Linux distributions, on a variety of machines, and I'm comfortable using the Linux command-line, but I don't have any experience with audio issues. Heretofore, the audio has simply worked.
NyteOwl, I re-booted and looked at the BIOS options, but I didn't see anything that looked like an option to turn audio on/off. I also ran dmesg (which is new to me) and got a huge output -- don't know what to look for in that.
MisterBark, I ran lspci -v and got another huge output, though not as big as from dmesg, and nicely sub-divided and labeled. Here's the output that's marked as related to audio:
00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation N10/ICH 7 Family High Definition Audio Controller (rev 01)
Subsystem: ASUSTeK Computer Inc. Device 840b
Flags: bus master, fast devsel, latency 0, IRQ 43
Memory at fe8f8000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16K]
Capabilities:  Power Management version 2
Capabilities:  MSI: Enable+ Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit+
Capabilities:  Express Root Complex Integrated Endpoint, MSI 00
Capabilities:  Virtual Channel
Capabilities:  Root Complex Link
Kernel driver in use: snd_hda_intel
Kernel modules: snd-hda-intel
(If you want the whole 152 lines, let me know and I'll post them.)
Please use code-tags, not quote tags for output of commands.
So, the kernel can see your sound hardware and has loaded the appropriate modules for the hardware. I assume that means that your hardware is working correctly.
Start alsamixer and look if all channels are unmuted. And the most obvious thing, make sure that your speakers are wired properly (this is often a cause for issues like yours)
TobiSGD - Bingo! After installing the new motherboard, I had mis-wired the speakers. Thanks for pointing to the obvious! And thanks to NyteOwl and MisterBark, as well, for your ideas -- now I have a few more CLI tools to work with in the future.