PROBLEM SOLVED!!! (literally spent days on this)
For those who shall follow, here's how. The linksys router came with a default IP address (192.168.1.1), which you can type into the URL field of a web browser, which then prompts for the password (default: admin). Thus, you can log in and see all the information you need to know about your wireless network. This way I learned my domain name, which is really the only info I was lacking.
Then I ran netconfig, naming my machine whatever I wanted, typing in the appropriate domain name, and selecting the DHCP option. I just hit enter on the field asking whether or not the router had assigned a name to your computer.
Then I opened a terminal and typed:
to change to that directory, and then typed
(to run the initialization script, I think. . .)
Alas, still no internet. Then, I got this crazy idea in my head and for reasons I'm still not sure of I typed:
Then I opened firefox to see the google homepage. I might as well as won the superbowl.