A re-install might be in order. Sounds like the kernel is asking for the wrong things. You might try the easy install if you did the advanced one (since your partitions are likely formatted) or the advanced one if you let the installed decide what to do (since it seems to have made an incorrect choice). See if there's an option to install the kernel without the ramdisk (initrd). Sometimes its pointing to the wrong places. Your disk is likely ok, but the kernel and the initrd are likely looking for a config file that's not where it(they) expect it to be. So that you know more about what is happening at this stage of bootup, you may want to head over to www.kernel.org
and read the install manual (skim it if you want). That way, you'll know what is happening when and you'll know what is likely to be wrong. Probably one line in the config file.