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In regards to question 4, I meant does having write permissions on a directory give you write permissions on all files within as well as giving you permissions to create new files in the directory??
No, you can't modify a file unless you have write permission to that file. But if you have write permission to the directory, then you can "delete" the file. In this sense, a "file" is just a directory entry, so what you are doing is modifying the directory itself, the file is not touched at all so the file permissions are irrelevant.
Of course, a file can have multiple hard links, so you are not necessarily "deleting" the file, you are just removing the link in that directory. The file is only deleted when there are no more links to it (and no program has the file open).
Alright, well after a bit of tinkering around in Fedora along with the advice given here I think I've got a bit of an idea. Could anyone suggest a good distro that I could use at home? I've heard good things about RedHat and Mandrake but I don't know enough about Linux to choose.
Distribution: openSuSE 42.1_64+Tumbleweed-KDE, Mint 17.3
Yeah symlinks, sorry that was a little unclear. I used Konqueror to click on them. Still, what is the use of them, when all the iterations of /boot/grub -- /boot/grub/grub -- /boot/grub/grub/grub ... ad infinitum just point at /boot/grub ?
Are you saying there is a file called "grub" in the /boot/grub directory, which is a link to /boot/grub ?
Show us - cd into that directory and post the output of ls -l (show us the link).
In general, you will find simlinks just pointing from odd-seeming places for backwards compatibility. This is why you will still find the old XFree86 directories there - many full of links to the xorg directories - even when xfree is no longer used.
You may also find a link /boot/grub/grub.conf pointing to /boot/grub/menue.lst, since these two files do the same thing and, while the distro maintainers may prefer one name, an app may reference the other.
Changing the name or location of a file can be a good idea, but doing so may break other programs. Hence the link from the old place to the new one. (Rather than try to convince several thousand programmers to do the same change see?)