for sound (the 2-minute tutorial), see http://www.linuxquestions.org/questi...hreadid=312948
for finding files:
if it's a program (say, emacs):
$ which emacs
if that doesn't work:
$ locate emacs
to use locate, a database must be make; updatedb does that, see the man page.
if all else fails:
$ find / -name 'emacs' # or -iname 'emacs'
/home/yourname: this is where you store all your mp3z; I install custom-built programs here as well.
/bin, /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/local/bin: location for binary programs. These are where (yast, apt, rpm, yum, w/e) installs the executable files.
/etc: this is where configuration files go. Think of it as fulfilling most of the same functions and the registry database, minus HKEY_Current_User (or what it's called)--that data would typically go into your home directory as hidden files (<=> files that start with a dot). Also, startup scripts (think autoexec.bat) goes here as well.
/tmp: temporary files.
/var: various files, such as the print and mail spools, cache of downloaded packages, (by default) html files to be served if you're running a web server. It probably varies a bit from distro to distro what will be put here.
/dev: device files.
To understand this, you need to get the central unix idea that everything is a file (even things that aren't a `real' file). For example, you can find /dev/hda, which represents your primary (only?) hard disk. Another classic is /dev/null; compare (GNU/Linux) echo "foo" > /dev/null to (dos) echo "foo" > NUL
Typicall, relatively few changes are made to this directory.
files representing data about running processes. For example, /proc/kcore represents most (all?) of your RAM.
/mnt: a place for mounting (non-removable) devices
/cdrom, /floppy (if you have them): a place for mounting CDs and floppies. look through /etc/fstab