Well, I don't mean anything rude by this, but it seems you want to do stuff you aren't yet capable of (or aren't really going to have a good time with). However, I'll see if I can answer them as best as possible:
Could someone please tell me how to locate a linux kernel's config files?
Normally the kernel's config files are located in /usr/src/kernel-version
And how would someone modify, let's say bash, a kernel in linux?
I'm assuming you mean, within bash, how would you modify the kernel. You will need root privileges, so as always, be VERY careful, and login as root:
Enter root's pass, then:
And go from there.