In general (independent of the distribution) in a terminal you could use the following commands
of course you will have to use the real IP-address of the university proxy. Note that this setting is only valid for the shell where the command was executed.
When you want to use the settings for your whole session, you could put the settings in a script which must be sourced, not executed
create a script named (for example) "proxysettings"
then you can source it in your ~/.bashrc with the following command
The disadvantage is that this would always be done when you login, not only at university. If you only need the proxy in a terminal for downloading, you can source the script on the commandline with the same command.