Packages do not depend on headers from other packages.
Unless you want to compile a source package.
And then : A file INSTALL or other documentation will tell.
I.e. the person writing the software knows from where the headers origins.
And will hopefully write a message about it.
No instructions : Use the online "source dependency lists", Debian, Ubuntu:
Example : http://packages.debian.org/source/sid/libusb
( 20,000 packages.)
Tools : The (autotools) configure script in a source package is meant to tell,
what's missing. But again : Only if the author includes the search / info for
The cmake, qmake, scons etc. 'configure tools' have similar functions.
Further questions ? : Then please tell which Linux OS, you are using.
And include an example of a package with missing dependencies. ( Headers.)