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Old 05-06-2003, 03:20 AM   #1
jt1020
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Smile 10 Problem Areas and Solutions in Linux


--------------------------------------------
Can't Boot Linux Anymore

PROBLEM: You've installed Linux and everything is fine(naturaly). Then you make a change to your Windows or Windows NT system, and you can't boot linux anymore...

SOLUTION: Various operating systems tend to think that they are the only operating system on the hard drive or on the system. Therefore, when they are installed or updated, they write things to the Master Boot Record(MBR). This process overlays the Linux boot loader(LILO/GRUB) and stops you from booting Linux. The best correction requires an ounce of prevention: Make an Emergency bootdisk during installation. Keep this disk handy when you update your system(or any significant system event like repartitioning your hard drive or rebuilding your kernel). Boot using the bootdisk and log in as Root and type lilo on the command line. This repairs the MBR by reinstalling LILO.
---------------------------------------------------------
Hard Drive Numbers Have Changed Since Installation

PROBLEM: Linux numbers hard drives each time it boots, calling SCSI hard drives name like sda, sda, and sdd. Suppose that sdd holds your Microsoft operating system, sdb holds the bulk of Linux, sdc holds your user files, and sdc holds your swap space. Now you add another hard drive and your user files are on sdd and your swap space is on sde. The new hard drive is sdc but has nothing on it. What happened?

SOLUTION: If you insert a new hard drive into the SCSI bus with a SCSI ID that is lower than an existing hard drive, you rename all hard drives with a SCSI ID number above the one you just installed. It's best to start installing your SCSI hard drives with a SCSI ID of 0,1,2 and so on; then put other SCSI devices at the other end of th SCSI bus(SCSI Ids 6,5,4 and so on). Note that most SCSI controllers are set to SCSI ID 7 by default.
---------------------------------------------------------
CD-ROM Isn't Detected

PROBLEM: You're Installing Linux but it doesn't find your CD-ROM.

SOLUTION: First, look at the preceding section about hard drive numbering. This enables you to figure out the name that Linux would call your CD-ROM if Linux knew about it. If you have an EIDE?ATAPI CD-ROM, type the following line whenever you see the boot prompt (LILO or GRUB prompt) while booting or installing your system:

linux hdx=cdrom

where X is the number your CD-ROM would have if it could be detected.
---------------------------------------------------------
How To Remove LILO and Restore my MBR

PROBLEM: You don't know how to replace the boot record that was on your system before you started installing Linux.

SOLUTION: You can log in to Linux as root, and then type the following command:

lilo -u

Another solution is to boot MS DOS, or MSDOS prompt and type the following:

fdisk /mbr
---------------------------------------------------------
Can't Use LILO to Boot

PROBLEM: You need to put Linux on a hard drive or a partition that is beyond the 1023rd cylinder, the second IDE hard drive, or the second SCSI ID number, or you need to do something else that will that will make it difficult for Linux to boot using LILO or GRUB. You can boot Linux in another way.

SOLUTION: You can use a program called LOADLIN to boot from your MS DOS or Windows system. You can read documents on how to configure LOADLIN....

issues about 1024th cylinder limits were resolved in lilo about 18 months ago afaik, there is no reason grub or lilo can't easily boot to the very end of a drive on hdd for example.
---------------------------------------------------------
The ls Command doesn't Show Files in Color

PROBLEM: When running the ls command to show files in color, the command doesn't display files in color.

SOLUTION: you have to edit the bashrc file in your home directory to add the following line to the end of the file:

alias la='ls –color=auto'

Log off and reexecute your bashrc file(assuming your using the bash shell).
---------------------------------------------------------
When I Start X Window System, I see a Gray Screen

PROBLEM: You configured your X Window system, but when you log in as a general user(that is, not as root) and type startx, all you get is a gray screen with a big x in the middle. You wait a long time, but nothing happens.

SOLUTION: To correct this problem, log in as root and go to the home directory who is having problems. After you are in the user's home directory, issue the ls – ld command tosee who owns that directory and what the permisions are on that directory. If the directory is owned by root and the group ownership is bin, use the chown and chgrp commands to change the ownership of the home directory to the user accnt and change the group ownership of the home directory to users.

This could be the issue, but then there an awful lot of things that could cause this. fundamentally it is caused by not being able to find reference to a window manager to load inside X, personally i've neevr found permissions to be the issue.

(also, it's not going to be a grey screen any more, due to the "die die die" X patch which makes it a nice colour...)
----------------------------------------------------------
How to Make X Window Start at Boot Time

PROBLEM: You don't want to have to log in to a command-line mode(such as DOS) and then type startx. Instead, you want to log in through X Window System.

SOLUTION: If you like to see a graphical interface from the beginning, do the following. In the /etc/inittab file, change this line:

id:3:initdefault:

to this:

id:5:initdefault:

Save your changes and reboot. X starts at the end of the boot process, and you can then log in through the graphical interface.
-----------------------------------------------------------
I Never Seem to Have the Correct Time

PROBLEM: When you boot Linux the time is wrong, so you set it with the date command. Then you boot to windows and itstime is wrong, so you reset it. When you reboot Linux, its time is wrong again.

SOLUTION: Most Unix systems keep their time using universal time(also known as GMT), but Microsoft Systems keep their time as local time. When you set the time n either system, you set the CPU clock to that version of the time. Then when you boot the other system, it interprets what is in the CPU clock differently and reports a different time.

Linux enables you to store and think of the clock as either GMT or local time. You make this choice when you install the system. To change your choice, follow these steps:

1. Log in as root.
2. Type timeconfig.

The Configure Timezones dialog box appears. Set your system clock to GMT by selecting the Hardware Clock Set To GMT option at the top of the screen.

3. Deselect the Hardware Clock Set To GMT option.

Highlight the option by pressing the tab key, if necessary.

4. Press the spacebar to deselect the option. Press the tab key until you reach the ok button, and then press Enter.
5. Reset the time to the proper value by using the date command if you reboot Linux or through the Windows System if you boot Windows.

Last edited by jt1020; 05-06-2003 at 04:39 AM.
 
Old 05-06-2003, 04:02 AM   #2
acid_kewpie
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some pretty useful information there, couple of things worth commenting on i think.

Can't Use LILO to Boot

issues about 1024th cylinder limits were resolved in lilo about 18 months ago afaik, there is no reason grub or lilo can't easily boot to the very end of a drive on hdd for example.

When I Start X Window System, I see a Gray Screen

This could be the issue, but then there an awful lot of things that could cause this. fundamentally it is caused by not being able to find reference to a window manager to load inside X, personally i've neevr found permissions to be the issue.

(also, it's not going to be a grey screen any more, due to the "die die die" X patch which makes it a nice colour...)

Thanks for all the information though, hopefully it'll help a lot of people.
 
Old 05-06-2003, 04:23 AM   #3
jt1020
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thank you, yes i hope it'll be of help to alot of people

 
Old 05-06-2003, 04:26 AM   #4
neenee
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hm.. please incorporate the comments of people into the main post;
otherwise this will turn into a thread people have to wholly read to
get the proper info.
 
Old 05-06-2003, 04:28 AM   #5
jt1020
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ok i guess your right.....
 
Old 05-09-2003, 07:37 AM   #6
kyut
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ei, those are good solutions i've solved some of my problems... hi all, this is my first post...
 
  


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