A checksum error means that the file you have on your machine is not the same as the one on the server from which you downloaded it. Often .bin files comprise a small amount of shell scripting and some binary executable, and obviously the data to be extracted. If you read through it using less you should easily be able to identify the scripted bit - the rest of it (binary and data) will just appear as gobbledegook. Some .bin files do not contain the binary part (they are rare, and only script and data) so the script will contain the instruction(s) necessary to extract the data. Again reading through the file using less is your best bet.
Since the structure of the .bin file may well vary greatly depending on the file's author, there's not likely to be a hard-and-fast rule to extract the files.