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I've been away from Linux for 18 months and have forgotten a couple of things (my advanced age, no doubt, doesn't help). What is the bash command which lists all volumes physically attached to the system whether mounted or not?
For the purposes of imaging a 4Gb SD card containing a Raspberry Pi operating system to an 8Gb usb stick in such a way as to be able to reload the O/S in its original, bootable format to the card from the stick if needed, would the following command do the job?
The source should not be mounted read/write (read-only is OK) or the target will end up with a mildly corrupted filesystem that needs an fsck to clean it up. (Try running "fsck -f -n" on a mounted filesystem if you want to see what to expect. Do not leave off the "-n" or fsck will be very unhappy with you.)
While a filesystem is mounted read/write, the on-disk metadata is not in a totally clean state. One fairly obvious case is files that have been deleted but are still held open by some process. These will show up in fsck as orphaned inodes (inode is busy, but is not linked from any directory), and fsck will dutifully recover these and put them in lost+found. For any file that is open for writing, the only true copy of the inode state is in memory, not on the disk, and that is true for block allocation maps and group descriptors as well. At a minimum, the "needs_recovery" flag will always be set in the super block.