I don't know how well-supported the machine is,
so if it does work the scan might be trivial, but
the barcode reading/OCR is quite limited in Linux
at the moment ...
There's several projects that deal with CueCat,
a special barcode scanning device.
The only reference to reading barcode from a
scanned image I found (in short time, admittedly
I didn't spend too much time googling) was
Storing blob's (Binary large objects) in PostgreSQL
or MySQL is trivial :)