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Just like repo said, your best option (and utility to have around) is a LiveCD of the version you're running. Do you have the option to download and burn an ISO of the same Ubuntu you have?
It's quite normal that you can change the root password if you have console access (physical access to the machine). There are always ways to bypass what's installed. Even in Windows (what you're referring to in my opinion) you don't really need the 'old' password to be able to reset a password (for example if you've forgotten it). All you need is physical access to the machine.
I don't know what has been changed by the installation you performed so I'm unsure how to uninstall/remove it. If now you have full access to the system you should be able though to perform the necessary actions. Before trying out things I suggest you take a backup of your configuration files and important documents (to USB stick or other drive/partition).
With a LiveCD you could boot your computer in that environment and thus not touching your harddisk. Next you could make a copy of all your configurations to a USB stick before attempting to uninstall the previous installation.
Well, now I have yet another problem.
I rebooted my computer, but the file system check started, and now it says :
init:mountall main process 1139 terminated with status 3.
mount of filesystem failed
a maintenance shell will now be started.
ctrl+d will terminate this shell and retry
give root password for maintenance
(or type ctrl d to continue):
(if i type ctrl d, the computer restarts and i get the same thing all over again...)
another yes/no question... should i answer yes to all of them?
this time the question is :
pass5: checking group summary information
block bitmap differences: +1488039 + 1488045 + 1488051 + 1488053