Now that you're added the fstab entry (which isn't even necessary, if I'm correct, but it's ok to have it there), do this in order to get the device function correctly:
1) plug the ipod in
2) if you don't have an automounter, mount the device as you would mount a normal USB mass storage disk:
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/ipod
3) run Amarok. Go to Amarok Settings, click the "Media Devices" icon. Click "Autodetect devices", if your sda1 is not listed; after it is listed, change the Plugin: menu to "Apple iPod". Apply settings, OK to exit.
4) On the Media device (well the page where your iPod should be shown; I'm using finnish version so it might be called differently) page your iPod's content should be visible, so your iPod should be connected. If not, click the "Connect" button. Then click the tools icon ("Configure Device" -tooltip). It's vital the iPod is connected before the next step.
5) "Pre-connect command"-field: write here mount %d
6) "Post-disconnect command"-field: write here umount %d && eject %d
7) Press OK to exit, then Disconnect to eject your iPod.
8) Plug it out and plug it in, Amarok should automatically connect to it
that's how I did it. Hopefully I didn't forget anything. The thing is, at least iPod Shuffle has to be mounted before Amarok can connect to it, and you can set the pre/post-connection commands only after the iPod is connected (otherwise they don't get saved for that iPod). So first you manually mount the device, then you either manually or automatically connect to it in Amarok, then you put the pre/post-connection settings right (tell Amarok to mount the device automatically before connecting and umount/eject it after disconnecting, so the device always gets handled correctly), then disconnect the device to save this information and re-plug it in for use.
I've tested with my two iPod Shuffles (512MB) and it seems this procedure has to be done for each different Shuffle one by one. If you attempt to set the pre/post-connect settings when the iPod is not connected, they don't affect your iPod when it is connected, and in that case you'll always need to manually mount the device before connecting to it from Amarok, and umount it after you've disconnected from it in Amarok. That's why you want to automate this process using the Amarok settings -- this whole process (which is simple, even if this text seems difficult) is essential and only has to be done once per device.
In my opinion Amarok handles these iPod Shuffles way better than iTunes does. And after my iTunes (on Windows) started going mad and refused to work with any iPod, Amarok just continued to work (lockfile problem).
EDIT: if you happen to run into trouble, don't find the settings I told about, you happen to fail at some point or you just can't get your Shuffle work, I'll be glad to help. I just got my iPod working with Linux after I thought it was broken (thanks to iTunes), and I'm pretty sure I know how to do this now
If you want aid on any other matter I can help you in, feel free to ask personally. I can be found in the irc too (freenode), occasionally, and here at LQ surely.
Good luck, and have a nice day.