I am new to unix platform so may i know what is unix internals and internal component
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A Unix architecture is a computer operating system system architecture that embodies the Unix philosophy. It may adhere to standards such as the Single UNIX Specification (SUS) or similar POSIX IEEE standard. No single published standard describes all Unix architecture computer operating systems - this is in part a legacy of the Unix wars.
There are many systems which are Unix-like in their architecture. Notable among these are the GNU/Linux distributions. The distinctions between Unix and Unix-like systems have been the subject of heated legal battles, and the holders of the UNIX brand, The Open Group, object to "Unix-like" and similar terms.
A Unix kernel — the core or key components of the operating system — consists of many kernel subsystems like process management, memory management, file management, device management and network management.
Each of the subsystem has some features:
* Concurrency: As Unix is a multiprocessing OS, many processes run concurrently to improve the performance of the system.
* Virtual memory (VM): Memory management subsystem implements the virtual memory concept and a user need not worry about the executable program size and the RAM size.
* Paging: It is a technique to minimize the internal as well as the external fragmentation in the physical memory.
* Virtual file system (VFS): A VFS is a file system used to help the user to hide the different file systems complexities. A user can use the same standard file system related calls to access different file systems.
The kernel provides these and other basic services: interrupt and trap handling, separation between user and system space, system calls, scheduling, timer and clock handling, file descriptor management.
Some key features of the Unix architecture concept are:
* Unix systems use a centralized operating system kernel which manages system and process activities.
* All non-Kernel software is organized into separate, kernel-managed processes.
* Unix systems are preemptively multitasking: multiple processes can run at the same time, or within small time slices and nearly at the same time, and any process can be interrupted and moved out of execution by the kernel. This is known as thread management.
* Files are stored on disk in a hierarchical file system, with a single top location throughout the system (root, or "/"), with both files and directories, subdirectories, sub-subdirectories, and so on below it.
* With few exceptions, devices and some types of communications between processes are managed and visible as files or pseudo-files within the file system hierarchy. This is known as everything's a file.
The UNIX operating system supports the following features and capabilities:
* Multitasking and multiuser.
* Kernel written in high-level language.
* Programming interface.
* Use of files as abstractions of devices and other objects.
* Character-based default UI.
* Built-in networking. (TCP/IP is standard.)
* Persistent system service processes called "daemons" and managed by init or inetd.
Those three links may be of help to you. However, your question(s) are too vague or broad. We cannot possibly tell you what you need to study about "basic commands and open source" in order to do well on this test. Perhaps if you can narrow down exactly what subject areas you are interested in, then folks might be able to direct you to specific resources.
I am sorry,let me be clear to you ,the first test topic is open source.So I want to know what kind of question i can expect from this or what do i need to study,I am new to linux so only i am confused,plz help me.
Sorry, but we can't tell you what to expect from "a test" on the topic of "open source." Why don't you tell us a bit more about the test so that we can give you more helpful advice. For example, can you post a link to a website with information about the test?
To give you an idea of why you haven't received the help you're looking for, these are completely different things:
Originally Posted by hanu123
I want to learn unix internals and internal components
May I know a fork() system call will create how many processes and what is the relation with 2^n
I suggest that you create another thread. Your continued unrelated queries within this thread are not good Netiquette. Netiquette is a set of social conventions that facilitate interaction over networks, ranging from Usenet and mailing lists to blogs and forums.
Plus by creating a new thread for this topic you will get exposure that may resolve your query.