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To answer the Op's question, whether he reads it or not, I would say to install a distro that forces you to use the command line, like Slackware or Gentoo (no experience with the latter, but I've heard it's one of the less *cushy* ones). I personally have learned more installing and setting up Slackware over the past few days than I learned every six months on Ubuntu.
And yes, I know a few days is a long time to set up an OS, but it is a complicated dual-boot situation with 4 OEM partitions and a USB install. So please don't judge.
I just did Salix and as I understand it, it is based on Slackware. It comes with a pretty comprehensive users manual and I am currently doing the exercises in the part concerning the CLI I am pleased with my choice and will learn Term commands quickly enough.
What is "Linux syntax"? You mean shell commands? Those are not "Linux syntax", but unix-like command syntax that is dependent upon the shell itself, and whether it's a shell command or some programming language you are using, like C or Perl, etc. Programming syntax varies widely, and what commands you can run in a shell vary depending on which shell, which OS, and what context they're being used in. I'd suggest doing some reading on basic programming languages and shell commands, there are many resources available. There are hundreds of shell commands current in Unix-like systems such as Linux, it could certainly take years to become proficient, but you also don't need to know any of that to just use Linux as an OS.