/dev/sda1 * 14 511,999,109 511,999,096 7 NTFS / exFAT / HPFS
This part from your RESULTS.txt file is rather strange, the Windows partition should either begin at sector 63 (if partitioned with older Windows versions or an older Linux fdisk) or at sector 2048 (newer Windows, newer Linux fdisk), but never at sector 14.
I would try the following:
1. Make a full backup of your Windows partition
2. Start Linux fdisk and remove the first partition.
3. Now use fdisk to create a new one in the same space, but beginning in sector 63, the end sector must be the same. Don't forget to set the new partition to the NTFS type.
4. If you are sure that the settings are correct, write the new partition table to the disk.
5. Reboot and look if it works.
If that doesn't help, format the new partition with NTFS, copy back all the files you backed up in step 1, start from your XP-CD, go to the recovery console and launch the command
Now it should work.