For printers you would use CUPS
dpkg install cupsys cupsys-client cupsys-driver-gutenprint
and possibly one or two other packages depending on the type of printer you have. the info you need to determin this you should be able to find at linuxprinting.org. you can tehn configure the printer using the CUPS web interface which will be at : http://localhost:631/
A new graphics card can be configured using the dpkg reconfiguration tool to get a basic working config going..
dpkg --reconfigure xserver-xorg
Then if it's ATI or nVidia there are how-to's you can use to install the proprietary Linux drivers so you can get 3D harware acceleration going..
Debian nvidia how-to
Follow the Module assistant directions)
(start at section4 and follow the module assistant directions..)
Internal modems.. erm. I dunno I haven't used a modem in I don't know how long.. someone else can field that one.
SATA drive with NTFS you need to have NTFS support available..
start by installing the latest ntfs drivers..
apt-get install ntfs-3g
then you should be able to mount te drive using
ntfs-3g /dev/sda5 /mnt/windows -o umask=0,nls=utf8
If that all works you can add it to yor /etc/fstab
file so it will automatically mount
/dev/sda5 /mnt/windows ntfs-3g umask=0,nls=utf8 0 0
Drivers for pretty much every device are in the lINUX kERNEL, THE Debina repositories, or packages related to the device. the trick is learning how to find them. start practicing yuor Internet search techniques with searches like..
debain ntfs how-to
debian nvidia how-to
debian cups how-to
debian modem how-to
Make use of the Linux documentation projects such as http://www.tldp.org/
Become familiar with how to use the apt package management system http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/apt-howto/
And as always drop by here and ask 'smart questions'
to get relevant helpful answers.
The more info you provide about what DistributioN and version you are running and what specific hardware you are trying to setup the easier it will be for people to assist you .
Hope that helps