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Old 11-22-2021, 01:57 AM   #31
pan64
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sundialsvcs View Post
Yeah, fork() – in both Unix® and Linux® – is a lot more expansive than the users of many other systems expect it to be, if they're accustomed to a mere "CreateProcess()" system function!
Just curious, how (or where?) can it be much better/faster?
 
Old 11-23-2021, 10:36 AM   #32
sundialsvcs
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When you "fork" a process, you replicate everything about its context. A simple "create process" call in most OSes does not undertake to do nearly so much.
 
Old 11-23-2021, 03:07 PM   #33
Racho
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I read a bit about semaphores and I think that the problem is that you need to define the semaphore in shared memory so that parent and childs can use it.

I have modified your program following the example of the answer 8 of this post:
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/...same-semaphore

Code:
#include <sys/sem.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/ipc.h>
#include <sys/shm.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <semaphore.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
int main()
{
    int pipe_fd[2];
    int status = 20;
    char buffer[4096]; //会初始化为0吗?Y
    pid_t pid1, pid2, pid3;
    sem_t *pipe_mutex = (sem_t *)mmap(NULL, sizeof(*pipe_mutex), 
		    PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED | MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0);
    sem_init(pipe_mutex, 1, 1);

    printf("init\n");

    if ((pid1 = fork()) == 0)
    {

        printf("child1 init.\n");
        fflush(stdout);
        while (status >= 0)
        {
            sem_wait(pipe_mutex);
            fprintf(stdout, "child1 start writing\n");
            // fflush(stdout);
            // status = write(pipe_fd[1], buffer, 128);
            sleep(.2);
            fprintf(stdout, "child1 write %d\n", status);
            fflush(stdout);
            status--;
            sem_post(pipe_mutex);
            sleep(.1);
        }
        fflush(stdout);
        exit(0);
    }
    else if ((pid2 = fork()) == 0)
    {

        printf("child2 init.\n");
        fflush(stdout);
        while (status >= 0)
        {
            sem_wait(pipe_mutex);
            fprintf(stdout, "child2 start writing\n");
            // fflush(stdout);
            // status = write(pipe_fd[1], buffer, 2047);
            sleep(.2);
            fprintf(stdout, "child2 write %d\n", status);
            fflush(stdout);
            status--;
            sem_post(pipe_mutex);
            sleep(.1);
        }

        fflush(stdout);
        exit(0);
    }
    else if ((pid3 = fork()) == 0)
    {

        printf("child3 init.\n");
        fflush(stdout);
        while (status >= 0)
        {
            sem_wait(pipe_mutex);
            fprintf(stdout, "child3 start writing\n");
            // fflush(stdout);
            // status = write(pipe_fd[1], buffer, 4200);
            sleep(.2);
            fprintf(stdout, "child3 write %d\n", status);
            fflush(stdout);
            status--;
            sem_post(pipe_mutex);
            sleep(.1);
        }
        fflush(stdout);
        exit(0);
    }
    else
    {
        // getchar(); //这个语句在这里的作用是什么?type anything and enter to start
        //sem_post(pipe_mutex);
        wait(0);
        wait(0);
        wait(0);
        // pipe_left_size(pipe_fd, pipe_mutex); //这两个函数的作用又是什么?
        printf("end\n");
        sem_unlink("pipe_mutex");
    }

    return 0;
}
And the semaphores work as you can see in the output:
Code:
init
child1 init.
child1 start writing
child2 init.
child3 init.
child1 write 20
child2 start writing
child2 write 20
child3 start writing
child3 write 20
child1 start writing
child1 write 19
child2 start writing
child2 write 19
child3 start writing
child3 write 19
child1 start writing
child1 write 18
child2 start writing
child2 write 18
child3 start writing
child3 write 18
child1 start writing
child1 write 17
child2 start writing
child2 write 17
child3 start writing
child3 write 17
child1 start writing
child1 write 16
child2 start writing
child2 write 16
child3 start writing
child3 write 16
child1 start writing
child1 write 15
child2 start writing
child2 write 15
child3 start writing
child3 write 15
child1 start writing
child1 write 14
child2 start writing
child2 write 14
child3 start writing
child3 write 14
child1 start writing
child1 write 13
child2 start writing
child2 write 13
child3 start writing
child3 write 13
child1 start writing
child1 write 12
child2 start writing
child2 write 12
child3 start writing
child3 write 12
child1 start writing
child1 write 11
child2 start writing
child2 write 11
child3 start writing
child3 write 11
child1 start writing
child1 write 10
child2 start writing
child2 write 10
child3 start writing
child3 write 10
child1 start writing
child1 write 9
child2 start writing
child2 write 9
child3 start writing
child3 write 9
child1 start writing
child1 write 8
child2 start writing
child2 write 8
child3 start writing
child3 write 8
child1 start writing
child1 write 7
child2 start writing
child2 write 7
child3 start writing
child3 write 7
child1 start writing
child1 write 6
child2 start writing
child2 write 6
child3 start writing
child3 write 6
child1 start writing
child1 write 5
child2 start writing
child2 write 5
child3 start writing
child3 write 5
child1 start writing
child1 write 4
child2 start writing
child2 write 4
child3 start writing
child3 write 4
child1 start writing
child1 write 3
child2 start writing
child2 write 3
child3 start writing
child3 write 3
child1 start writing
child1 write 2
child2 start writing
child2 write 2
child3 start writing
child3 write 2
child1 start writing
child1 write 1
child2 start writing
child2 write 1
child3 start writing
child3 write 1
child1 start writing
child1 write 0
child2 start writing
child2 write 0
child3 start writing
child3 write 0
end

Last edited by Racho; 11-23-2021 at 03:46 PM.
 
Old 11-23-2021, 03:48 PM   #34
rknichols
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sundialsvcs View Post
When you "fork" a process, you replicate everything about its context. A simple "create process" call in most OSes does not undertake to do nearly so much.
In modern processors, fork() isn't nearly as expensive as one might think. That replication is done by having the parent and child processes share the same memory pages and marking them "copy on write" in the MMU. The most common use for fork() is for the child process to do a little cleaning up and then call exec(), which discards almost all of the pages, so very little actual copying is performed.
 
1 members found this post helpful.
Old 11-23-2021, 07:01 PM   #35
sundialsvcs
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@rknichols: Acknowledging that your assessment is (of course) technically correct.

While the Unix/Linux fork() procedure is not necessarily expensive, it is quite extensive. In most OSes, there is simply no corollary at all to fork().
 
  


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