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Old 09-25-2014, 03:21 AM   #1
fantasy1215
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Registered: Oct 2011
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How do you write unittest code to test the code like getDateOfYesterday?


Like you write a function to return the date of yesterday,Nomatter what language we use, Let me take python language as the example,
the code as below:
Code:
def getDateOfYesterday():
    agodate      = datetime.datetime.now() + datetime.timedelta(-1)
    agodate      = "%04d%02d%02d" % (agodate.year, agodate.month, agodate.day)
    return agodate
If I want to write code to unittest this function, The way I could figure out is to hard coded the expected return value,
Like:
Code:
class Test_getDateOfYesterday(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_1(self):
        onedayago = getDateOfYesterday
        self.assertEqual("20140924", onedayago, "")
But then everytime I need to run this unittest, I have to modify the expected return date to pass this unittest.
It's tedious.
If I don't hard coded the expected return date, then I need to write another code to verify this function.
Then what if the another code has the same fault as this function has?
Could somebody explain some theory which unittest such situation?
This question has bothered me a long time.
Hope I explain the problem clearly, and Thanks in advance.
 
Old 09-25-2014, 06:52 AM   #2
rtmistler
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The problem is that you've coded with an absolute string and are not considering variability of the input.

A proper unit test first examines all possible input values; including illegal values and all possible output values.

To properly unit test something you should be testing all possible input values which can be sent to that module, or the best representation of values you can conceive of and you should automate the testing better.

Two ways I might approach this, and I would use both ways for a full and complete test:
  1. Alter system date in iteration to cause the output of datetime.datetime.now() to be a broad range of values and test iteratively
  2. Replace the possible values that agodate could be with test table data and test iteratively
In all cases, you should have a table of expected results which you compare against when you write your test function.

I would use both methods, but lean more on method #2 for the following reasons. In method #1, your system is only going to accept legal dates, and providing the library function now() works, which it does, then you're always only ever going to test legal date strings and therefore fail to test illegal date strings. Using method #2 you can cause incorrect input and verify that your module rejects or does no continued harm.

Either case, in writing your test harness, you do not hard code the expected result, you instead contrive a variety of inputs as broadly defined as you can and you also code expected outputs or behaviors from the module under test and then you run the test program and generate a report.
 
Old 09-25-2014, 07:15 AM   #3
mina86
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One solution is to add a _now argument to getDateOfYesterday, e.g.:
Code:
def getDateOfYesterday(_now=None):
    if _now is None:
        _now = datetime.datetime.now()
    _now += datetime.timedelta(-1)
    return "%04d%02d%02d" % (_now.year, _now.month, _now.day)
and then use it in tests. You can also create a separate function:
Code:
def getDateOfPrevDay(now):
    now += datetime.timedelta(-1)
    return "%04d%02d%02d" % (now.year, now.month, now.day)

def getDateOfYesterday():
    return getDateOfPrevDay(datetime.datetime.now())
and test it instead of getDateOfYesterday.

A bit more complicated approach, but one that does not require the module you are testing to be changed, is to mock datetime.datetime.now method. Unfortunately, datetime.datetime is a built-in type so you have to mock the whole thing:
Code:
import datetime
import unittest


def getDateOfYesterday():
    dt = datetime.datetime.now()
    dt += datetime.timedelta(-1)
    return "%04d%02d%02d" % (dt.year, dt.month, dt.day)


class DateTimeMock(object):

    original_datetime = datetime.datetime
    _now = original_datetime.now()

    def now(self):
        return self._now

    def setNow(self, *args, **kw):
        self._now = self.original_datetime(*args, **kw)


class TestCase(unittest.TestCase):

    def _setNow(self, *args, **kw):
        self._dt_mock.setNow(*args, **kw)

    def setUp(self):
        self._dt_mock = DateTimeMock()
        datetime.datetime = self._dt_mock

    def tearDown(self):
        datetime.datetime = self._dt_mock.original_datetime

    def testGetDateOfYesterday(self):
        self._setNow(2014, 9, 20)
        self.assertEqual('20140919', getDateOfYesterday())

        self._setNow(2013, 9, 20)
        self.assertEqual('20130919', getDateOfYesterday())


if __name__ == '__main__':
    unittest.main()

Last edited by mina86; 10-01-2014 at 01:09 PM.
 
1 members found this post helpful.
Old 09-25-2014, 07:53 PM   #4
fantasy1215
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Registered: Oct 2011
Posts: 75

Original Poster
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mina86, Thanks for your patient explanation and the example code, That's really helpful, Your view open my mind and expand my view too. I really appreciate your help. Thanks again.
 
Old 09-25-2014, 08:02 PM   #5
dugan
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Honestly, I'd just rewrite the function to return the day before the date that's passed in.

Code:
def getDateOfYesterday(today):
    agodate      = today + datetime.timedelta(-1)
    agodate      = "%04d%02d%02d" % (agodate.year, agodate.month, agodate.day)
    return agodate
And then you use it with:

Code:
getDateOfYesterday(datetime.now())
Much more versatile, and much more testable.

Last edited by dugan; 09-25-2014 at 08:06 PM.
 
  


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