You've got lots and lots of options.
Furthermore, there's a lot you didn't really tell us:
a) What does this program do?
b) What resources does it require?
Just a keyboard, a DOS monitor, and ++1MB RAM?
Does it use a printer? Communicate over the network? What kind of network: LanMan? Novell? LanTastic?
c) How do users interact with it?
Do they run it locally (on their own "DOS PC")? Does it provide some network service?
Anyway, DOSEMu and DOSBox are both good candidates (although clearly you seem to have issues with DosEMu on your particular distro). Other alternatives you might want to consider are:
* DOS VM under Xen Server
* DOS VM under VMWare
* Virtual Box VM
* MS Virtual PC
'Hope that helps
You might want to try some equivalent of these commands to resolve the DOSEmu runtime errors:
apt-get install xorg-dev
apt-get install libslang2-dev
<= Use "apt-cache search" to find the exact package