dalek 
10292004 04:31 AM 
man random:
Quote:
RANDOM
Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (3 )
NAME
random, srandom, initstate, setstate  random number generator
SYNOPSIS
#include <stdlib.h>
long int random(void);
void srandom(unsigned int seed);
char *initstate(unsigned int seed, char *state, size_t n);
char *setstate(char *state);
DESCRIPTION
The random() function uses a nonlinear additive feedback random number generator employing a default table of size 31 long integers to return successive pseudorandom numbers in the range from 0 to RAND_MAX. The period of this random number generator is very large, approximately 16*((2**31)1).
The srandom() function sets its argument as the seed for a new sequence of pseudorandom integers to be returned by random(). These sequences are repeatable by calling srandom() with the same seed value. If no seed value is provided, the random() function is automatically seeded with a value of 1.
The initstate() function allows a state array state to be initialized for use by random(). The size of the state array n is used by initstate() to decide how sophisticated a random number generator it should use  the larger the state array, the better the random numbers will be. seed is the seed for the initialization, which specifies a starting point for the random number sequence, and provides for restarting at the same point.
The setstate() function changes the state array used by the random() function. The state array state is used for random number generation until the next call to initstate() or setstate(). state must first have been initialized using initstate () or be the result of a previous call of setstate().
RETURN VALUE
The random() function returns a value between 0 and RAND_MAX. The srandom() function returns no value. The initstate() and setstate() functions return a pointer to the previous state array, or NULL on error.
ERRORS
EINVAL
A state array of less than 8 bytes was specified to initstate().
NOTES
Current "optimal" values for the size of the state array n are 8, 32, 64, 128, and 256 bytes; other amounts will be rounded down to the nearest known amount. Using less than 8 bytes will cause an error.
CONFORMING TO
BSD 4.3
SEE ALSO
rand(3), srand(3)

man rand:
Quote:
RAND
Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (3)
NAME
rand, rand_r, srand  pseudorandom number generator
SYNOPSIS
#include <stdlib.h>
int rand(void);
int rand_r(unsigned int *seedp);
void srand(unsigned int seed);
DESCRIPTION
The rand() function returns a pseudorandom integer between 0 and RAND_MAX.
The srand() function sets its argument as the seed for a new sequence of pseudorandom integers to be returned by rand(). These sequences are repeatable by calling srand() with the same seed value.
If no seed value is provided, the rand() function is automatically seeded with a value of 1.
The function rand() is not reentrant or threadsafe, since it uses hidden state that is modified on each call. This might just be the seed value to be used by the next call, or it might be something more elaborate. In order to get reproducible behaviour in a threaded application, this state must be made explicit. The function rand_r() is supplied with a pointer to an unsigned int, to be used as state. This is a very small amount of state, so this function will be a weak pseudorandom generator. Try drand48_r(3) instead.
RETURN VALUE
The rand() and rand_r() functions return a value between 0 and RAND_MAX. The srand() function returns no value.
EXAMPLE
POSIX 1003.12003 gives the following example of an implementation of rand() and srand(), possibly useful when one needs the same sequence on two different machines.
static unsigned long next = 1;
/* RAND_MAX assumed to be 32767 */
int myrand(void) {
next = next * 1103515245 + 12345;
return((unsigned)(next/65536) % 32768);
}
void mysrand(unsigned seed) {
next = seed;
}
NOTES
The versions of rand() and srand() in the Linux C Library use the same random number generator as random() and srandom(), so the lowerorder bits should be as random as the higherorder bits. However, on older rand() implementations, and on current implementations on different systems, the lowerorder bits are much less random than the higherorder bits. Do not use this function in applications intended to be portable when good randomness is needed.
FreeBSD adds a function
void sranddev(void);
that initializes the seed for their bad random generator rand() with a value obtained from their good random generator random(). Strange.
In Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (William H. Press, Brian P. Flannery, Saul A. Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992 (2nd ed., p. 277)), the following comments are made:
"If you want to generate a random integer between 1 and 10, you should always do it by using highorder bits, as in
j=1+(int) (10.0*rand()/(RAND_MAX+1.0));
and never by anything resembling
j=1+(rand() % 10);
(which uses lowerorder bits)."
Randomnumber generation is a complex topic. The Numerical Recipes in C book (see reference above) provides an excellent discussion of practical randomnumber generation issues in Chapter 7 (Random Numbers).
For a more theoretical discussion which also covers many practical issues in depth, please see Chapter 3 (Random Numbers) in Donald E. Knuth's The Art of Computer Programming, volume 2 (Seminumerical Algorithms), 2nd ed.; Reading, Massachusetts: AddisonWesley Publishing Company, 1981.

man srand
Quote:
RAND
Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (3)
NAME
rand, rand_r, srand  pseudorandom number generator
SYNOPSIS
#include <stdlib.h>
int rand(void);
int rand_r(unsigned int *seedp);
void srand(unsigned int seed);
DESCRIPTION
The rand() function returns a pseudorandom integer between 0 and RAND_MAX.
The srand() function sets its argument as the seed for a new sequence of pseudorandom integers to be returned by rand(). These sequences are repeatable by calling srand() with the same seed value.
If no seed value is provided, the rand() function is automatically seeded with a value of 1.
The function rand() is not reentrant or threadsafe, since it uses hidden state that is modified on each call. This might just be the seed value to be used by the next call, or it might be something more elaborate. In order to get reproducible behaviour in a threaded application, this state must be made explicit. The function rand_r() is supplied with a pointer to an unsigned int, to be used as state. This is a very small amount of state, so this function will be a weak pseudorandom generator. Try drand48_r(3) instead.
RETURN VALUE
The rand() and rand_r() functions return a value between 0 and RAND_MAX. The srand() function returns no value.
EXAMPLE
POSIX 1003.12003 gives the following example of an implementation of rand() and srand(), possibly useful when one needs the same sequence on two different machines.
static unsigned long next = 1;
/* RAND_MAX assumed to be 32767 */
int myrand(void) {
next = next * 1103515245 + 12345;
return((unsigned)(next/65536) % 32768);
}
void mysrand(unsigned seed) {
next = seed;
}
NOTES
The versions of rand() and srand() in the Linux C Library use the same random number generator as random() and srandom(), so the lowerorder bits should be as random as the higherorder bits. However, on older rand() implementations, and on current implementations on different systems, the lowerorder bits are much less random than the higherorder bits. Do not use this function in applications intended to be portable when good randomness is needed.
FreeBSD adds a function
void sranddev(void);
that initializes the seed for their bad random generator rand() with a value obtained from their good random generator random(). Strange.
In Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (William H. Press, Brian P. Flannery, Saul A. Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992 (2nd ed., p. 277)), the following comments are made:
"If you want to generate a random integer between 1 and 10, you should always do it by using highorder bits, as in
j=1+(int) (10.0*rand()/(RAND_MAX+1.0));
and never by anything resembling
j=1+(rand() % 10);
(which uses lowerorder bits)."
Randomnumber generation is a complex topic. The Numerical Recipes in C book (see reference above) provides an excellent discussion of practical randomnumber generation issues in Chapter 7 (Random Numbers).
For a more theoretical discussion which also covers many practical issues in depth, please see Chapter 3 (Random Numbers) in Donald E. Knuth's The Art of Computer Programming, volume 2 (Seminumerical Algorithms), 2nd ed.; Reading, Massachusetts: AddisonWesley Publishing Company, 1981.

That help any?? I have never used it but that is the man pages.
Later
:D :D :D
Biggest post I ever made. :eek:
