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Old 10-15-2004, 02:11 PM   #1
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what's "<<" means..?

I know < operation is stdinput..

please explain << operation for example..

and all redirection operation... like 1>, 2>, >&1.. etc..
Old 10-15-2004, 02:18 PM   #2
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All the answers are in :

man bash

example :
Here Documents
This type of redirection instructs the shell to read input
from the current source until a line containing only word
(with no trailing blanks) is seen. All of the lines read
up to that point are then used as the standard input for a

The format of here-documents is:

Old 10-15-2004, 02:29 PM   #3
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thanks to Cedrik..

i find it bash man page...


i don't know how to use...

Last edited by shrrot; 10-15-2004 at 02:34 PM.
Old 10-15-2004, 04:18 PM   #4
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Well, just read the man page. I'll get you started 2>foo means send all results on file descriptor 2 to the file called foo. In fact n>foo where n is some numbers means send results of file descriptor n to the file called foo. There are three file desctiptors you need to really care about, 0 is standard input, 1 is standard output, and 2 is standard error. 2>&1 means send the output of file descriptor 2 to the same place where 1's output is going ... simple, really, once you know a bit about it.
Old 10-15-2004, 08:01 PM   #5
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thanks for your kindness explanation..
your explanatin is helped me understand >, 2>, 2>&1...
but i want to know how to use << ..
i'm sorry my annoying question..


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