This does not help or even makes things worse. Namely, if I include
options snd-hda-intel vendor=hp
(which is strange, the laptop in question is asus, I don't think it has anything to do with hp), then beep does not work, and also aplay and alsamixer don't work.
If I don't include vendor=hp, leaving only
options snd-hda-intel enable_msi=1
aplay and alsamixer work (i. e. they produce no errors, aplay really plays wav files, and alsamixer's "master" control seems to change volume, but "beep" control does not seem to help), but ther is no beep in xfce terminal and in ctrl-alt-f1 terminal.