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Old 05-18-2017, 07:53 AM   #1
NotionCommotion
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No longer have /etc/init.d/


Just got a brand new 1&1 Centos 7 VPS from 1&1 last evening. I've never used Centos 7 before, and only have used Centos 6 (both a VPS from phpwebhosting and Ubuntu and Rasputin (only physical machines).

I know longer have the /etc/init.d/ folder, and evidently need to start using systemd.

Is this new server some half baked amateur server, or is this configuration considered normal? The reason I ask is if not normal, I will immediately cancel this VPS, and get one elsewhere.

Thanks
Code:
[michael@localhost init.d]$ pwd
/etc/init.d
[michael@localhost init.d]$ ls -l
total 32
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 15131 Sep 12  2016 functions
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  2989 Sep 12  2016 netconsole
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  6643 Sep 12  2016 network
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  1160 Apr 12 19:57 README
[michael@localhost init.d]$ cat RE*
You are looking for the traditional init scripts in /etc/rc.d/init.d,
and they are gone?

Here's an explanation on what's going on:

You are running a systemd-based OS where traditional init scripts have
been replaced by native systemd services files. Service files provide
very similar functionality to init scripts. To make use of service
files simply invoke "systemctl", which will output a list of all
currently running services (and other units). Use "systemctl
list-unit-files" to get a listing of all known unit files, including
stopped, disabled and masked ones. Use "systemctl start
foobar.service" and "systemctl stop foobar.service" to start or stop a
service, respectively. For further details, please refer to
systemctl(1).

Note that traditional init scripts continue to function on a systemd
system. An init script /etc/rc.d/init.d/foobar is implicitly mapped
into a service unit foobar.service during system initialization.

Thank you!

Further reading:
        man:systemctl(1)
        man:systemd(1)
        http://0pointer.de/blog/projects/systemd-for-admins-3.html
        http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/Incompatibilities
[michael@localhost init.d]$
 
Old 05-18-2017, 07:58 AM   #2
sundialsvcs
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As the description states, "systemd" replaces "init" with a slew of system-management daemons and a completely different process for specifying the startup sequence and so forth. It does not use the "old" files.
 
Old 05-18-2017, 07:59 AM   #3
NotionCommotion
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sundialsvcs View Post
As the description states, "systemd" replaces "init" with a slew of system-management daemons and a completely different process for specifying the startup sequence and so forth. It does not use the "old" files.
And this is not considered a "bad thing", right?
 
Old 05-18-2017, 08:49 AM   #4
rknichols
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Quote:
Originally Posted by NotionCommotion View Post
And this is not considered a "bad thing", right?
It's consdered "different". Many opponents of systemd accept that it is indeed an improved init system, and that the SysV init that it replaced was in need of replacement. The bigger controversy is all the other places where systemd takes control over system operations and the way many other parts of the system have become dependent on it.

In the end, it is what it is, and it is what RHEL/CentOS 7 and a lot of other distributions are using. You can either learn to get along with it, or seek out one of the remaining distributions that still uses the older init system.
 
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Old 05-18-2017, 09:06 AM   #5
NotionCommotion
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Ah, so it is a Centos7 thing and not a VPS provider's tweak. Okay, guess I am going to learn to get along with it.
 
Old 05-18-2017, 12:32 PM   #6
ondoho
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Quote:
Originally Posted by NotionCommotion View Post
guess I am going to learn to get along with it.
archlinux has been using systemd for a very long time, and their wiki has a lot to offer:
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Systemd
 
Old 05-18-2017, 08:28 PM   #7
frankbell
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Quote:
And this is not considered a "bad thing", right?
If you use the LQ search, you will find a number of threads regarding whether SystemD is a good or bad thing. The primary objection to it is philosophical. Many persons think it violates the "Unix Philosophy." Secondary objections are that, by default, it does not generate traditional log files, though you can install rsyslog, which directs the contents of the SystemD "journals" (that's SystemD for "logs") to /var/log in traditional format. Many distros that use SystemD include rsyslog by default.

Personally, I think another factor in the objection is that persons who are proficient in one thing sometimes don't want to replace it with a new thing that requires them to learn new stuff. I certainly partake of that feeling from time to time.

I have used several distros with SystemD, mostly Debian and Mageia on hardware and CentOS in a VM, and have not yet encountered a problem related to SystemD.

Last edited by frankbell; 05-18-2017 at 10:02 PM. Reason: Grammar. It matters.
 
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Old 05-18-2017, 09:43 PM   #8
sundialsvcs
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As for me, I have quickly found SystemD to be much more versatile for my purposes. (If I never have to edit a "crontab" again, I'll be a Happy Boy.) Although I happen to think that they wound up biting-off "more than they really needed to chew," there is now much more fine-grained control over both the startup sequence and the regularly-scheduled tasks that all of our systems need to run.

The collection of processes that make up this new system are aware of one another, and can talk to one another. You now have far more sophisticated options than either inittab or crontab(s) could ever give you. And, if you're managing a group of machines, you have more options than you ever had.

Quite frankly, "I've been missing this functionality from Linux for a long time." Both Windows and OS/X ... and mini/mainframe operating systems, too ... have had analogous features for years. With Linux, very-important as it had become to each and every one of us, "we had no choice but to improvise," because the available facilities were (quite frankly ...) so primitive.

Every "shop" I've ever worked with had been obliged (by necessity) to come up with a slightly-different way to "improvise," and most of them were not that satisfactory. Now (IMHO™ ...), we [finally ...] have a much-enhanced set of capabilities that is much more in-keeping with what [most ...] other operating environments have been offering. And, all of it has been standardized.

I needed what this new system offers, and I'm therefore grateful to have it.

(And yet, I think it's also totally cool that, with Linux, "you still have a choice!" If you want to, you can customize e-v-e-r-y-t-h-i-n-g(!) about this operating system.)

Last edited by sundialsvcs; 05-18-2017 at 09:51 PM.
 
Old 05-19-2017, 12:48 AM   #9
NotionCommotion
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Quote:
Originally Posted by frankbell View Post
Personally, I think another factor in the objection is that persons who are proficient in one thing sometimes don't want to replace it with a new thing that requires them to learn new stuff. I certainly partake of that feeling from time to time.
Fortunately or not fortunately, I am not proficient enough to have that problem.

That being said, a while back I made a decision to never do the standard Centos "server blabla start", and always use "/etc/init/blabla".

Guess I am a little sad...
 
Old 05-19-2017, 03:09 AM   #10
r3sistance
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Quote:
Originally Posted by NotionCommotion View Post
That being said, a while back I made a decision to never do the standard Centos "server blabla start", and always use "/etc/init/blabla".
A small price to pay, to use a system that actually knows if its services are actually running or not and has the ability to handle onFailure events, to do things such as sending e-mails or restarting the failed service.
 
  


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