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Old 11-06-2004, 06:01 PM   #1
Registered: Aug 2004
Location: CANADA
Distribution: Fedora core4
Posts: 60

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installed programs & directories

Hello people
I've got some questions about intalling programs and directories...just to let u know that im running a fedora core 3 on a laptop
1) How can we find out what programs are installed for ex. netscape...(all the ones that we can or can't run)i.e sometimes if some other user has installed the program and if we don't have the path to that program is it still possible to see what programs are installed

2) Would u guys explain what each of this /usr , /sbin , /bin ... are for and what files are in them and what do we have to put in them when we're installing programs...or do we even have to touch em ???

3)Some programs ask for path names of where we want the instalation files to be saved what is the convention for doin that...?

4)How can we edit the $PATH file....where is the file so we can add some path to it permanently so after restart we won't have to enter it again on command line..

5) some times the OS can't recognaze which program to open (program may not be installed at all) so it'll prompt for path to open a program...question is: in windows we direct it to a .exe file most programs are in .exe format but what about linux....? what is the exetension of program files in linux? or do they even need to have extension...which ive come across of some that don't even have extension

thank you very much
Old 11-06-2004, 06:23 PM   #2
Registered: Jul 2004
Location: Palo Alto, CA
Distribution: #! Korora
Posts: 472

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Old 11-07-2004, 12:34 AM   #3
Registered: Oct 2004
Location: Vancouver, B.C., Canada
Distribution: Kubuntu
Posts: 59

Rep: Reputation: 15

I'm still fairly new to this, so if I err in any way, do correct me...

In Slackware, the environment is set on startup according to the /etc/profile file. On my system the file contains comments and such to assist in modifying.

I was also reading regarding environment variables. There is a "set" command which sets variables, but unlike in DOS, it only sets, as I understand, variables, but not environment. Explanation: A program or script can store values in variables, but programs that are executed are not given these variables. In order to pass information on to programs, the information must be placed in the environment. To do this you use "export".

For example:

To view the current PATH setting:

echo $PATH

Echo writes a string to the display. The dollar sign causes the contents of PATH to be substituted into the command tail of "echo", works also with variables. Say you want to append something...

export PATH=$PATH:[string]

Again, the $PATH represents and is substituted with the current PATH. The colon is used to separate individual directories, and [string] is a directory you want to append. If you modify the /etc/profile (if you have one) you may be able to add the directory where the PATH gets set in the first place, or you might add a line as above some where after where the PATH gets set.

Regarding the ".exe" you've seen in dos/win. Linux doesn't use an extension to designate executables, but what's called "permissions" instead. And not only can a file be designated executable, but which users can execute it. "chmod" is the program used to modify the permissions, and closely related, chattr modifies attributes.

Last edited by TenEighty; 11-07-2004 at 12:52 AM.
Old 11-07-2004, 01:11 PM   #4
Registered: Apr 2004
Distribution: Debian
Posts: 185

Rep: Reputation: 30
Here is a link to the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS).


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