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Old 09-10-2017, 11:37 AM   #1
centguy
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how to install linux mint on a brand new destop with windows 10 on it.


Can some one please point me to the best (or at least
good and carefully written) description of step by step installation of second (and possibly a third) linux OS on a brand new desktop that comes with preinstalled windows 10.

This one has UEFI stuff, which I have zero experience.

I know how to do multiboot before UEFI, ie., the old grub way. I use
a thumb drive with linux mint to resize the windows disk and create
as many partitions as I want to choose to install the bootloader to the
first section of each partition and use chain load trick to load up the desired
one. But that was like 5 years ago.

But now with UEFI, I am at a loss..

Thanks for point me to the right direction.
 
Old 09-10-2017, 12:23 PM   #2
Michael Uplawski
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Hi.

I know less than nothing about UEFI, but found this article quite well written and complete, when I compare with Wikipedia and try to identify all the elements from the UEFI article:
http://www.zdnet.com/article/hands-o...i-boot-my-way/

Although I do not plan to use Microsoft® systems in the future, PSE say, if the information from the article was helpful.
 
Old 09-10-2017, 12:25 PM   #3
GentleThotSeaMonkey
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#1, I'd have a safe strategy ready, just in case you did need to restore Win10.
Even with the very best plans, accidents can happen.

#2, I'd try searching: best linux uefi tutorial
What is best for one person, may not even apply to another, because of subtle differences,
such as exact model computer, distro, etc. Might you post the model info?

Maybe now that I've knocked this off ZRT, experienced opinions will pour in.

Best wishes! Yea Ham
 
Old 09-10-2017, 01:00 PM   #4
Rickkkk
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Hey centguy,

... honestly, I've set up dual-booting on both BIOS and UEFI systems, and it's not THAT different. You need to choose the UEFI version of the linux distro you wish to use, mostly, but the other steps should be familiar to you since you say that you say you've done this on BIOS systems in the past (shrinking Windows partition, etc. ...).

Cheers.
 
Old 09-10-2017, 11:34 PM   #5
centguy
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Thanks Rickkkk,
GentleThotSeaMonkey and Michael Uplawski.


Michael Uplawski:
About that link:

In the next post, I will look at the details of configuring GRUB for multi-boot, both for Linux-only installations and for mixed Linux/Windows installations.

Silly question: Where is the `next post'?
 
Old 09-11-2017, 12:41 AM   #6
GentleThotSeaMonkey
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Hiding here: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/jamies-mostly-linux-stuff/8/
(I clicked on blog next to name below article title, then tried page#s to find date)
 
Old 09-11-2017, 03:16 AM   #7
Michael Uplawski
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Quote:
Originally Posted by centguy View Post
Silly question: Where is the `next post'?
I had a hard time trying to understand blog sites, I gave up on this one.

Felicitations, btw.
 
Old 09-11-2017, 11:12 AM   #8
centguy
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Okay, I shall proceed very slowly without breaking the existing Windows 10.


Using a Linux Mint bootable thumbdrive Live "CD" (more appropriately live thumbdrive), I am able to look into the partitions.

With gparted:

I am able to see 2 internal disks, 128 GB SSD under sda
and 1 TB SATA under sdb.


On sda,

sda1 is fat32 of EFI system partition, 260MB,

sda2 is Microsoft reserved partition of 16MB.

sda3 is ntfs of 117 GB.

sda4 is ntfs of 850 MB

sda5 is ntfs of 800 MB.



Question;
Can I use gparted to shrink sda3 to make room of multiple partitions for many test linux OSes?



Also sdb has only sdb1 of ntfs of 931 GB.


Question:
Can I used gparted to shrink sdb1 so that I can put test other linux OSes if I can't touch any of sdaX, X=1 to 5? But since booting
from SSD is so quick, I would really like to be able to shrink sda3. Any comments? gparted is not suitable for this purpose or I should shrink sda3 from run-time windows 10?

Thanks.

I am hoping my paranoid pays for other users who want to do the same thing. I have created Windows 10 recovery CD, but I really
do not want to use that disk ever.

Thanks!
 
Old 09-11-2017, 12:05 PM   #9
DavidMcCann
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This looks like a pretty good tutorial
https://www.tecmint.com/install-linu...oot-uefi-mode/
It's probably going to be safest to get Windows to do the shrinking; at least that's what's suggested in the tutorial.
 
Old 09-11-2017, 12:17 PM   #10
Mill J
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Do NOT shrink the partition from Linux!!! Windows will self destruct it's bootloader locking up the windows install. its fairly easy to fix....But.
 
Old 09-11-2017, 12:49 PM   #11
centguy
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Thanks DavidMcCann and MillJ.

As per advice, I used the Disk Management of Windows 10 to shrink /dev/sda3 and /dev/sdb1 (a bit counter intuitive since I always think it is unwise
to shrink a disk that is active during boot time, but well it works so I won't argue).

Then I used the live thumbrive of Linux Mint 18.2 gparted
to create a /dev/sda6 of 30 GB and then install Linux Mint 18.2 on it (gparted is used since I know exactly that /dev/sda6 is going
to be reformatted again, silly but then it seems fool proof). After reboot, Windows is shown in the boot menu. Nice!

I guess I am fine now for now.. Thanks.

Questions ahead: When I install a second Linux OS on /dev/sda7 (which will be created later), should I install the bootloader to /dev/sda or /dev/sda7?
(I remember vaguely that CentOS 7x installed it to /dev/sda by default, which made me worried somewhat -- A reason that I still stick to CentOS 6x, but I am thinking
of trying of CentOS 7x with the new computer.)

If the choice is /dev/sda, will the second Linux installer able to create a nice boot menu with Windows and the installed Linux Mint and the new second Linux OS? If that can be done, then I have
done the multiboot. Any one has done that?

If the choice is /dev/sda7, then I guess I am using the Linux Mint bootloader and somehow I need to chain load it to the second Linux OS. How to do that with
grub2? My skill is only up to the old grub, which should be obselete by now.

Thanks for comments again.
 
Old 09-11-2017, 10:58 PM   #12
centguy
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Let me collect the sequential articles for multiboot:



Last edited by centguy; 09-14-2017 at 09:18 PM. Reason: Note added on 2017-09-15. Wow, the first and second posts are very well written and 99.9% accurate! Love it!
 
Old 09-11-2017, 11:27 PM   #13
centguy
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Comments on the second post:

The person who contributed the multiboot assumed too much of the readers, if I have not misread.

He advocated the idea of chainloader, which I like, but it seems to fall short of details.

He mentioned a few surprises about linuxefi that prompt him to use chainload, but then my recently
installed Linux Mint 18.2 uses

linux /boot/vmlinuz-4.8.0-53-generic root=UUID=a9e42030-f7d9-43ad-a6c0-138633373004 ro quiet splash $vt_handoff


(i.e., no linuxefi)

Anyway, in the installation of a new OS, a user has to decide to install the bootloader to /dev/sda

or /dev/sdaX (or /dev/sdbY, etc)

Installing to /dev/sda is may be good since the new OS should be booted up nicely by the latest native bootloader. But if the latest bootloader
ignore the preinstalled OSes then trying to learn to boot the `lost' OS can be a pain.

Installing to /dev/sdaX (or equivalent) is what the second post try to advocate, but then one needs to learn to add an entry in the existing grub.cfg
to enable to old bootloader to chainload to the new installed OS, a task that need some knowlege of grub2 and create menuentry.
This has the advantage of using the native bootloader to boot an OS. Any update the kernel will be dealt with consistently.


In summary, even though I have some experience of mutli-boot based on LEGACY grub (i.e, MBR way), I am still learning to
do the multiboot in the most consistent way.
 
Old 09-12-2017, 12:17 AM   #14
WFV
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Quote:
Originally Posted by DavidMcCann View Post
It's probably going to be safest to get Windows to do the shrinking; at least that's what's suggested in the tutorial.
yes.
Partition Wizard for Windows is free and very good - have shrunk XP and W7's with it without issue, haven't tried it on 10 yet. I have modified XP partions with Gparted though without any issue, but probably wouldn't bother trying it on W10, use Windows based software for the Windows partition is as mentioned probably safest. Backup your data first.
 
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Old 09-12-2017, 07:29 AM   #15
aragorn2101
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Hi centguy, and good job for successfully installing on UEFI machine.

With UEFI, as you can see, there is a partition of several hundreds of MB for installing bootloaders. You can go ahead and inspect the contents of /boot/efi, where it is mounted.

Now, instead of having a single bootloader installed in MBR and make it boot every other system, you can have several bootloaders (.efi files: EFI binaries) installed on the EFI partition, and more importantly, registered in the UEFI firmware settings. If you get into the BIOS (or UEFI firmware settings, as they call it nowadays), you can see a list of bootloaders and you will find the Windows loader and GRUB listed there. But it is still much simpler to make Grub boot every different system on the machine.

So, if you boot a live distro which is UEFI compatible, it will be able to detect the EFI partition (here it is sda1) and ask you if you wish to install the bootloader there. Maybe you missed that little part when you installed Mint. I am pretty sure Mint had /dev/sda1 as the default option to install its bootloader.

It is with MBR hard disks that we had to point installation to /dev/sda (which was basically the device name for the MBR partition).

Yes, with any update of the kernel grub.cfg has to be changed. Some distros place grub.cfg in their directory on the EFI partition. Some distros even place a copy of the kernel on the EFI partition, as you can make the UEFI firmware boot kernels as well.

Also, check out rEFInd. It is a boot loader manager. You can use it to chainload EFI bootloader binaries or kernels.
http://www.rodsbooks.com/refind/
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/REFInd
https://docs.slackware.com/howtos:sl...d_on_slackware
 
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