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Old 04-10-2009, 02:01 AM   #1
lbrtdy
LQ Newbie
 
Registered: Apr 2009
Posts: 2

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Grub Boot Loader


Hello LinuxQuestions.org,
I'm a new member of this forum and I hope that we will get to know each other well. I'm a fairly new person to linux, and as such, I have some questions that I hope that you can answer.. Well my first question has to do with the Grub Boot Loader. I'm trying to install a couple linux distros to my flash drive and I needed a boot loader so I went ahead and grabbed ubuntu and used that to transfer the grub boot loader to my flashdrive and MBR following a guide at http://users.bigpond.net.au/hermanzone/p15.htm. It worked as I booted into it, but it has like 5 invalid entries at the moment, are those safe to remove? They point to ubuntu, ubuntu safe, ubuntu memtest 86+ etc. I'm planning to have Puppy Linux, and DSL on this flashdrive, but I'm trying to avoid having to partition the flashdrive if possible. How would I go about just transferring the contents of the .iso images that I have downloaded onto my flashdrive and then using Grub to select which ones that I would boot into? The DSL is 4.4.9 and puppy linux is 4.2. Also does this method work if I later on decide to add another distro to the batch, say like xubuntu, which I just follow the same principle? Sorry if this is a lot of questions, good thing I posted in the newbie section of the forum eh? Well big thanks goes to whoever that steps forward willing to help, much appreciated. -albert

This is the contents of menu.lst:

Code:
# menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
#            grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
#            grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
#            and /usr/share/doc/grub-doc/.

## default num
# Set the default entry to the entry number NUM. Numbering starts from 0, and
# the entry number 0 is the default if the command is not used.
#
# You can specify 'saved' instead of a number. In this case, the default entry
# is the entry saved with the command 'savedefault'.
# WARNING: If you are using dmraid do not use 'savedefault' or your
# array will desync and will not let you boot your system.
default		0

## timeout sec
# Set a timeout, in SEC seconds, before automatically booting the default entry
# (normally the first entry defined).
timeout		3

## hiddenmenu
# Hides the menu by default (press ESC to see the menu)
hiddenmenu

# Pretty colours
#color cyan/blue white/blue

## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line)  and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
#      password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
# password topsecret

#
# examples
#
# title		Windows 95/98/NT/2000
# root		(hd0,0)
# makeactive
# chainloader	+1
#
# title		Linux
# root		(hd0,1)
# kernel	/vmlinuz root=/dev/hda2 ro
#

#
# Put static boot stanzas before and/or after AUTOMAGIC KERNEL LIST

### BEGIN AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST
## lines between the AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST markers will be modified
## by the debian update-grub script except for the default options below

## DO NOT UNCOMMENT THEM, Just edit them to your needs

## ## Start Default Options ##
## default kernel options
## default kernel options for automagic boot options
## If you want special options for specific kernels use kopt_x_y_z
## where x.y.z is kernel version. Minor versions can be omitted.
## e.g. kopt=root=/dev/hda1 ro
##      kopt_2_6_8=root=/dev/hdc1 ro
##      kopt_2_6_8_2_686=root=/dev/hdc2 ro
# kopt=root=UUID=944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989 ro

## default grub root device
## e.g. groot=(hd0,0)
# groot=944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989

## should update-grub create alternative automagic boot options
## e.g. alternative=true
##      alternative=false
# alternative=true

## should update-grub lock alternative automagic boot options
## e.g. lockalternative=true
##      lockalternative=false
# lockalternative=false

## additional options to use with the default boot option, but not with the
## alternatives
## e.g. defoptions=vga=791 resume=/dev/hda5
# defoptions=quiet splash

## should update-grub lock old automagic boot options
## e.g. lockold=false
##      lockold=true
# lockold=false

## Xen hypervisor options to use with the default Xen boot option
# xenhopt=

## Xen Linux kernel options to use with the default Xen boot option
# xenkopt=console=tty0

## altoption boot targets option
## multiple altoptions lines are allowed
## e.g. altoptions=(extra menu suffix) extra boot options
##      altoptions=(recovery) single
# altoptions=(recovery mode) single

## controls how many kernels should be put into the menu.lst
## only counts the first occurence of a kernel, not the
## alternative kernel options
## e.g. howmany=all
##      howmany=7
# howmany=all

## should update-grub create memtest86 boot option
## e.g. memtest86=true
##      memtest86=false
# memtest86=true

## should update-grub adjust the value of the default booted system
## can be true or false
# updatedefaultentry=false

## should update-grub add savedefault to the default options
## can be true or false
# savedefault=false

## ## End Default Options ##

title		Ubuntu 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-11-generic
uuid		944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-11-generic root=UUID=944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989 ro quiet splash 
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-11-generic
quiet

title		Ubuntu 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-11-generic (recovery mode)
uuid		944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-11-generic root=UUID=944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989 ro  single
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-11-generic

title		Ubuntu 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-7-generic
uuid		944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic root=UUID=944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989 ro quiet splash 
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic
quiet

title		Ubuntu 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-7-generic (recovery mode)
uuid		944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic root=UUID=944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989 ro  single
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic

title		Ubuntu 8.10, memtest86+
uuid		944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989
kernel		/boot/memtest86+.bin
quiet

### END DEBIAN AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST
Is it safe to remove all those invalid options to boot in? Thanks!
 
Old 04-10-2009, 02:52 AM   #2
Junior Hacker
Senior Member
 
Registered: Jan 2005
Location: North America
Distribution: Debian testing Mandriva Ubuntu
Posts: 2,687

Rep: Reputation: 61
The reason you have so many entries is because the original kernel from installation is still installed, this is the 2.6.27-7 kernel. One of it's entries is for booting it normally, the other for troubleshooting if something goes wrong.
Because you applied updates, now the newest kernel version for Ubuntu is also installed, this is the 2.6.27-11 kernel.
In the past, many people would advise not to remove the old kernel as the newer one could create problems with your specific hardware and you may need to revert to the old.
I've been running Linux for at least five years now and have many different flavours all the time and never had to revert to an older kernel except when I had problems building a custom wireless adapter driver, recently I was able to build my custom driver against all the latest kernels and have since removed the old kernel. I prefer to not have extra software installed if not needed to keep my compressed backup images of the OS as small as possible, and it is very easy to reinstall an older kernel if required.
Ultimately, if you see no need to keep the old one, open System/Administration/Synaptic_package_manager and scroll down to the "linux-image-2.6.27-7" package and remove it, and "linux-headers-2.6.27-7" package also if it's installed. By removing the old kernel, (linux-image), the entries for it in the boot menu will also be removed.
If you choose to keep it but don't want it appearing in the list, comment it out by adding a hash (#) before the word "title" in both entries for it. To add a hash, issue command: sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst in a terminal to edit the file as superuser.

It is probably best to keep the two entries for the 2.6.27-11 incase you run into problems and need to boot into recovery mode. But that is not always needed also as you can boot into a live session with the Ubuntu CD to troubleshoot the hard drive installation also. It is your decision to make. I would just comment out the recovery mode entry, it can be uncommented from a live session off the CD if needed later.
The memtest 86 entry can also be commented as it is very rarely used, and again, can be uncommented from a live session if required later. An example list with entries commented follow:
Code:
## ## End Default Options ##

title		Ubuntu 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-11-generic
uuid		944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-11-generic root=UUID=944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989 ro quiet splash 
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-11-generic
quiet

#title		Ubuntu 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-11-generic (recovery mode)
uuid		944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-11-generic root=UUID=944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989 ro  single
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-11-generic

#title		Ubuntu 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-7-generic
uuid		944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic root=UUID=944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989 ro quiet splash 
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic
quiet

#title		Ubuntu 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-7-generic (recovery mode)
uuid		944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic root=UUID=944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989 ro  single
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic

#title		Ubuntu 8.10, memtest86+
uuid		944e3d18-78c4-46e2-81a7-8b994d17a989
kernel		/boot/memtest86+.bin
quiet

### END DEBIAN AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST
As far as adding Puppy and DSL, you cannot boot an ISO, you'll have to partition.
 
Old 04-10-2009, 11:30 PM   #3
lbrtdy
LQ Newbie
 
Registered: Apr 2009
Posts: 2

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 0
Oh the ubuntu is in a VM by the way, my primary OS is still windows until I can figure out linux some more. I'm just using Grub to load my portable linux apps on my flash drive. And I know you can't boot from iso, but I was wondering if you can just extract the contents and place them into different directories and then use grub to boot into the different linux flavors? I have tried that a lil more now but I keep getting error 18. Any help is appreciated, thanks!
 
  


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