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Old 10-20-2002, 07:46 PM   #1
Johnsernickle
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Registered: Aug 2002
Posts: 71

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IP masquerading. somebody help me!


Ive been trying to get IP Masquerading to work for about a week now but i just cant get it to work. I have two Win2K computers and one Red Hat Linux 7.2 computer. All im trying to do is get my linux computer to let my internal network (eth0) talk to the rest of the world through my modem (ppp0). The thing thats really strange to me is that i can ping out with my Windows 2000 computers... but i cant acess any web pages. Heres my temp. script to start up IP Masquerading... i hope to make a more secure one later.... maybe someone can see an error?


#!/bin/sh
#
# rc.firewall-2.4
FWVER=0.63
#
# Initial SIMPLE IP Masquerade test for 2.4.x kernels
# using IPTABLES.
#
# Once IP Masquerading has been tested, with this simple
# ruleset, it is highly recommended to use a stronger
# IPTABLES ruleset either given later in this HOWTO or
# from another reputable resource.
#
#
#
# Log:
# 0.63 - Added support for the IRC IPTABLES module
# 0.62 - Fixed a typo on the MASQ enable line that used eth0
# instead of $EXTIF
# 0.61 - Changed the firewall to use variables for the internal
# and external interfaces.
# 0.60 - 0.50 had a mistake where the ruleset had a rule to DROP
# all forwarded packets but it didn't have a rule to ACCEPT
# any packets to be forwarded either
# - Load the ip_nat_ftp and ip_conntrack_ftp modules by default
# 0.50 - Initial draft
#

echo -e "\n\nLoading simple rc.firewall version $FWVER..\n"


# The location of the 'iptables' program
#
# If your Linux distribution came with a copy of iptables, most
# likely it is located in /sbin. If you manually compiled
# iptables, the default location is in /usr/local/sbin
#
# ** Please use the "whereis iptables" command to figure out
# ** where your copy is and change the path below to reflect
# ** your setup
#
IPTABLES=/usr/local/sbin/iptables


#Setting the EXTERNAL and INTERNAL interfaces for the network
#
# Each IP Masquerade network needs to have at least one
# external and one internal network. The external network
# is where the natting will occur and the internal network
# should preferably be addressed with a RFC1918 private address
# scheme.
#
# For this example, "eth0" is external and "eth1" is internal"
#
# NOTE: If this doesnt EXACTLY fit your configuration, you must
# change the EXTIF or INTIF variables above. For example:
#
# EXTIF="ppp0"
#
# if you are a modem user.
#
EXTIF="ppp0
INTIF="eth0
echo " External Interface: $EXTIF"
echo " Internal Interface: $INTIF"


#======================================================================
#== No editing beyond this line is required for initial MASQ testing ==


echo -en " loading modules: "

# Need to verify that all modules have all required dependencies
#
echo " - Verifying that all kernel modules are ok"
/sbin/depmod -a

# With the new IPTABLES code, the core MASQ functionality is now either
# modular or compiled into the kernel. This HOWTO shows ALL IPTABLES
# options as MODULES. If your kernel is compiled correctly, there is
# NO need to load the kernel modules manually.
#
# NOTE: The following items are listed ONLY for informational reasons.
# There is no reason to manual load these modules unless your
# kernel is either mis-configured or you intentionally disabled
# the kernel module autoloader.
#

# Upon the commands of starting up IP Masq on the server, the
# following kernel modules will be automatically loaded:
#
# NOTE: Only load the IP MASQ modules you need. All current IP MASQ
# modules are shown below but are commented out from loading.
# ===============================================================

#Load the main body of the IPTABLES module - "iptable"
# - Loaded automatically when the "iptables" command is invoked
#
# - Loaded manually to clean up kernel auto-loading timing issues
#
echo -en "ip_tables, "
/sbin/insmod ip_tables


#Load the IPTABLES filtering module - "iptable_filter"
# - Loaded automatically when filter policies are activated


#Load the stateful connection tracking framework - "ip_conntrack"
#
# The conntrack module in itself does nothing without other specific
# conntrack modules being loaded afterwards such as the "ip_conntrack_ftp"
# module
#
# - This module is loaded automatically when MASQ functionality is
# enabled
#
# - Loaded manually to clean up kernel auto-loading timing issues
#
echo -en "ip_conntrack, "
/sbin/insmod ip_conntrack


#Load the FTP tracking mechanism for full FTP tracking
#
# Enabled by default -- insert a "#" on the next line to deactivate
#
echo -en "ip_conntrack_ftp, "
/sbin/insmod ip_conntrack_ftp


#Load the IRC tracking mechanism for full IRC tracking
#
# Enabled by default -- insert a "#" on the next line to deactivate
#
echo -en "ip_conntrack_irc, "
/sbin/insmod ip_conntrack_irc


#Load the general IPTABLES NAT code - "iptable_nat"
# - Loaded automatically when MASQ functionality is turned on
#
# - Loaded manually to clean up kernel auto-loading timing issues
#
echo -en "iptable_nat, "
/sbin/insmod iptable_nat


#Loads the FTP NAT functionality into the core IPTABLES code
# Required to support non-PASV FTP.
#
# Enabled by default -- insert a "#" on the next line to deactivate
#
echo -en "ip_nat_ftp, "
/sbin/insmod ip_nat_ftp


# Just to be complete, here is a list of the remaining kernel modules
# and their function. Please note that several modules should be only
# loaded by the correct master kernel module for proper operation.
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# ipt_mark - this target marks a given packet for future action.
# This automatically loads the ipt_MARK module
#
# ipt_tcpmss - this target allows to manipulate the TCP MSS
# option for braindead remote firewalls.
# This automatically loads the ipt_TCPMSS module
#
# ipt_limit - this target allows for packets to be limited to
# to many hits per sec/min/hr
#
# ipt_multiport - this match allows for targets within a range
# of port numbers vs. listing each port individually
#
# ipt_state - this match allows to catch packets with various
# IP and TCP flags set/unset
#
# ipt_unclean - this match allows to catch packets that have invalid
# IP/TCP flags set
#
# iptable_filter - this module allows for packets to be DROPped,
# REJECTed, or LOGged. This module automatically
# loads the following modules:
#
# ipt_LOG - this target allows for packets to be
# logged
#
# ipt_REJECT - this target DROPs the packet and returns
# a configurable ICMP packet back to the
# sender.
#
# iptable_mangle - this target allows for packets to be manipulated
# for things like the TCPMSS option, etc.

echo ". Done loading modules."



#CRITICAL: Enable IP forwarding since it is disabled by default since
#
# Redhat Users: you may try changing the options in
# /etc/sysconfig/network from:
#
# FORWARD_IPV4=false
# to
# FORWARD_IPV4=true
#
echo " enabling forwarding.."
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward


# Dynamic IP users:
#
# If you get your IP address dynamically from SLIP, PPP, or DHCP,
# enable this following option. This enables dynamic-address hacking
# which makes the life with Diald and similar programs much easier.
#
echo " enabling DynamicAddr.."
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr


# Enable simple IP forwarding and Masquerading
#
# NOTE: In IPTABLES speak, IP Masquerading is a form of SourceNAT or SNAT.
#
# NOTE #2: The following is an example for an internal LAN address in the
# 192.168.0.x network with a 255.255.255.0 or a "24" bit subnet mask
# connecting to the Internet on external interface "eth0". This
# example will MASQ internal traffic out to the Internet but not
# allow non-initiated traffic into your internal network.
#
#
# ** Please change the above network numbers, subnet mask, and your
# *** Internet connection interface name to match your setup
#


#Clearing any previous configuration
#
# Unless specified, the defaults for INPUT and OUTPUT is ACCEPT
# The default for FORWARD is DROP
#
echo " clearing any existing rules and setting default policy.."
$IPTABLES -P INPUT ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -F INPUT
$IPTABLES -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -F OUTPUT
$IPTABLES -P FORWARD DROP
$IPTABLES -F FORWARD
$IPTABLES -t nat -F

echo " FWD: Allow all connections OUT and only existing and related ones IN"
$IPTABLES -A FORWARD -i $EXTIF -o $INTIF -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -A FORWARD -i $INTIF -o $EXTIF -j ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -A FORWARD -j LOG

echo " Enabling SNAT (MASQUERADE) functionality on $EXTIF"
$IPTABLES -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o $EXTIF -j MASQUERADE

echo -e "\nrc.firewall-2.4 v$FWVER done.\n"


Well, any help at all will help me from going crazy about this.


Thanks in advance,

~Peter
 
Old 10-21-2002, 01:40 AM   #2
born4linux
Senior Member
 
Registered: Sep 2002
Location: Philippines
Distribution: Slackware, RHEL&variants, AIX, SuSE
Posts: 1,127

Rep: Reputation: 49
am too lazy to read your script u said u can ping? what - IP addresses or DNS? If u can ping the IP and not the host name, that is a DNS issue. manually set the DNS IP addresses of your ISP to your Windows boxes or implement a DNS forwarder in your LInux box.

Did you flush your iptables ruleset before using the above script?
 
Old 10-21-2002, 05:48 AM   #3
peter_robb
Senior Member
 
Registered: Feb 2002
Location: Szczecin, Poland
Distribution: Gentoo, Debian
Posts: 2,458

Rep: Reputation: 48
You need to allow dns replies to come back in.
dns uses udp protocol which isn't a 'stateful' protocol, so needs it's own rules to work...

add to the script...
$IPTABLES -A FORWARD -i $EXTIF -p udp -m udp --sport 53 -s my.dns.ser.ver1 -j ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -A FORWARD -i $EXTIF -p udp -m udp --sport 53 -s my.dns.ser.ver2 -j ACCEPT
before the -j LOG rule.

The tables are flushed and cleared ok in this script.

Regards,
Peter

Last edited by peter_robb; 10-21-2002 at 05:51 AM.
 
Old 10-21-2002, 07:36 PM   #4
Johnsernickle
Member
 
Registered: Aug 2002
Posts: 71

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 15
... I don't understand... what do i change "my.dns.ser.ver1" to? When i run the script i get an error "ip tables failed to lacate the server/network my.dns.ser.ver1." thanks for your help.

~peter
 
Old 10-22-2002, 06:57 PM   #5
peter_robb
Senior Member
 
Registered: Feb 2002
Location: Szczecin, Poland
Distribution: Gentoo, Debian
Posts: 2,458

Rep: Reputation: 48
Your isp has a set of dns servers. Use both of those numbers.

Once the modem has connected ok, take a look at the /etc/resolv.conf file and use the numbers in there.

Regards,
Peter
 
  


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