Just because you compile some code for an ARM CPU, doesn't necessarily mean that code will execute as-is on Android. Any more than it'll execute as-is on Windows CE (which also supports ARM).
Yes, you can compile C++ code to run under Android. To do this, you need to download the Android NDK:
Frankly, though, this is several orders of magnitude more difficult than simply using the (Java) SDK. I would strongly encourage to you try using Java first, and C++ only as a last resort, if you absolutely have to. Here's where you can find the current SDK:
And here's a book I've found helpful to familiarize myself with Android:
Android Application Development, Lauren Darcey and Shane Conder
'Hope that helps!