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Old 04-12-2004, 02:29 PM   #1
LQ Guru
Registered: Feb 2003
Location: Sparta, NC USA
Distribution: Ubuntu 10.04
Posts: 5,141

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Testing my re-organized links and guides

# Preparing to install Linux:
# Choosing a Linux Distribution:
A Beginner's Guide to Choosing a Linux Distribution
Reasons to Choose or Not Choose Linux
LWN distro list
elinux Linux Distributions
# Freeware tools for partitioning/resizing hard drive partitions
Any Linux Live CD usually have fdisk, cfdisk and other tools available
Ranish Partition Manager
# Understanding Linux Filesystem layout:
Directory Navigation Help File
Filesystems, Directories, and Devices Help File
Proper Filesystem Layout
Advanced filesystem implementor's guide (requires registration)

# Do I buy a boxed source, download off the internet or buy some cheap CDs?
It's your choice! If you download, I suggest that you
Check the MD5sums On the Linux Iso Images
How to Burn ISOs in Windows to install Linux
# Cheap CDs
Discount Linux CDs
Linux Central
Os Heaven

# I don't get a GUI/my resolution isn't what I want
# Configuring X
Linux Hardware Compatibility HOWTO - video cards
The Linux XFree86 HOWTO
Configuring XFree86 for a Non-Specific Linux Distribution
Common X configuring tools:
Debian - dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xfree86
Mandrake - XFdrake
SuSE - sax2
Red Hat Linux 9: Red Hat Linux Reference Guide Chapter 7. The X Window System
Redhat 7.3 down - the setup utility leads to several config tools
Redhat 7.3 up - redhat-config-xfree86
You may have one or more of these tools:
XFree86 -configure
ATI Linux drivers
If you need the nVidia driver, you want the Linux IA32 driver unless you just bought the new AMD 64 bit CPU

# How about sound card configuring?
# Sound card config
Intel AC'97 and Creative Labs* onboard audio
Intel - Configuring Onboard Audio
ALSA download page, scroll down to Read-only anonymous CVS access is also available

# I have a win<something> or a kernel module driver I have to install.
# Compiling/installing kernel modules
You will need to have installed:
1. The developmental packages (compiler)
2. The kernel-source code that matches your running kernel
3. The module source or install code

Check out your system and look under the hood and see if you installed the stuff you need to do the job. Open an x terminal and type in this sequence of commands to see what kernel we are running and see if you have the kernel source installed:
[fancy@tinwhistle fancy]$ su -
[root@tinwhistle root]# uname -r
I am running kernel version 2.4.20-28.7. Do I have the proper source code?
[root@tinwhistle root]# cd /usr/src
[root@tinwhistle src]# ls -alc
total 3
drwxr-xr-x    4 root     root          136 Jun 12 14:53 .
drwxr-xr-x   16 root     root          424 Jun  4 12:04 ..
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root           14 Jun  4 12:11 linux-2.4 -> linux-2.4.20-28.7
drwxr-xr-x   16 root     root          584 Jun  4 12:11 linux-2.4.20-28.7
drwxr-xr-x    7 root     root          168 Jun  4 12:08 redhat
[root@tinwhistle src]#
I do have the same kernel version source code installed in the directory /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-28.7 and there is a symbolic link named linux-2.4 pointing to it.

If you don't see something similiar to this (but in color), you will need to install the kernel source.

NOTE: I noticed that Red Hat didn't make the symbolic link /usr/src/linux that all of the INSTALL files that I have read mentioned that I need. I may as well make one now to save editing the files in the source code every time I need to compile anything concerning the kernel. So, I'll make that link just now:
[root@tinwhistle src]# ln -s linux-2.4.20-28.7 linux         
[root@tinwhistle src]# ls -alc
total 3
drwxr-xr-x    4 root     root          160 Jun 12 15:46 .
drwxr-xr-x   16 root     root          424 Jun  4 12:04 ..
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root           14 Jun 12 15:46 linux -> linux-2.4.20-28.7
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root           14 Jun  4 12:11 linux-2.4 -> linux-2.4.20-28.7
drwxr-xr-x   16 root     root          584 Jun  4 12:11 linux-2.4.20-28.7
drwxr-xr-x    7 root     root          168 Jun  4 12:08 redhat
[root@tinwhistle src]#
Ah, there it is, so that's done.

Next, did I install the compiler?
[root@tinwhistle src]# gcc -v          
Reading specs from /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96/specs
gcc version 2.96 20000731 (Red Hat Linux 7.3 2.96-113)
[root@tinwhistle src]#
Yes, I have a compiler installed.

If you don't have those two things installed, you have to install them first off your install CD.

If they are installed, download the source and happy compiling. Make sure you carefully read the README and INSTALL files after extracting and before compiling/installing.

# I have Linux installed, now how do I work some stuff like some software and file managers?
# I can't figure out what software I want and how to install/uninstall it
The table of equivalents, replacements, analogs of Windows software in Linux
# Find software here
# Guides to software management
LNAG - How do I install a program I downloaded from the Internet?
Rute Guide's software explanation
You might want to check out CheckInstall to manage source code installations/uninstallation
# File managers
Midnight Commander
Gentoo file manager
# HTML editors
Personally, I use the editor in Midnight Commander when in console and gnotepad+ (gnp is the command to launch it) when in X.
Beginners guide: So, you want to make a Web Page!
Anything else you might need

# How about CD copying, ripping and burning? I can't figure it out
# CD burning copying ripping info
Is it configured and what is the device? Command this to find out:
cdrecord -scanbus
Adding an IDE CD-Writer to Linux
CD Writing HOWTO
Burning CDs on Linux
# Burn an ISO to disk
cdrecord -v speed=<burning speed> dev=<your device> /path/to/foo.iso;eject
# Burn from disk to disk
cdrecord -v dev=<your device> speed=<burning speed> -isosize /dev/cdrom;eject
# ISO information
isoinfo -i -d /dev/cdrom
# Generate an ISO from a directory.
mkisofs -vrTJUV "Label" -o foo.iso /path/to/directory
# Generate an ISO from a CD
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=foo.iso
# cdparanoia - search for a drive with reporting of autosense:
cdparanoia -vsQ
# Rip a complete audio CD with cdparanoia
cdparanoia -B "1-";eject
Linux MP3 CD Burning mini-HOWTO
# Convert mp3 to wav with lame
for i in *.mp3; do lame --decode $i `basename $i .mp3`.wav; done
# Burn a CD from wav files
cdrecord -v -audio -pad speed=<burning speed> dev=<your device> /path/to/*.wav;eject
# Copy CD using cdrdao
cdrdao read-cd --device <your device> --read-raw --datafile mydata.bin -v 99 mydata.cue
cdrdao write --device <your device> --overburn -v 99 --speed <burning speed> mydata.cue

# Erase a CDRW
cdrecord -v dev=<your device> speed=<burning speed> blank=fast

# Mount CD iso images as a filesystem
mount /path/to/foo.iso /mnt/iso -t iso9660 -o ro,loop=/dev/loop0

# How about viruses and worms?
# Basic Linux security and virus info
The Virus Writing HOWTO reference: Should I get anti-virus software for my Linux box?
Unusual network activity? chkrootkit is a tool to locally check for signs of a rootkit
Linux Questions Security references
Security Help Files
Linux Administrator's Security Guide
Security Focus
Linux Security
Firewalls and Security

# I can't seem to make my drives work like I want
# Managing drives
LNAG - Accessing my drives
Rute - Device Mounting

# What's this bash command stuff?
# Bash shell commands
Command Reference NHF
O'Reilly Directory of Linux Commands
# Handy bash commands I might use or ask a newbie to use:
# Find CPU specifications
cat /proc/cpuinfo
# Find running kernel version
uname -r
# What compiler version do I have installed
gcc -v
gcc --version
# What is the running kernel and compiler installed
cat /proc/version
# Find X server version
X -showconfig
# What pci cards are installed and what irq/port is used
cat /proc/pci
# What kernel modules are loaded
# Memory and swap information
cat /proc/meminfo
An article: Tips for Optimizing Linux Memory
# How are the hard drives partitioned
fdisk -l
# How much free/used drive space
df -h
# Show disk usage by current directory and all subdirectories
du | less
# What takes up so much space on your box
# Run from the directory in question and the largest chunk shows up last
find $1 -type d | xargs du -sm | sort -g
# What is the distribution
cat /etc/.product
cat /etc/.issue
cat /etc/issue
cat /etc/
# For finding or locating files
# Use dmesg to view the kernel ring buffer (error messages)
dmesg | less
# Watch error messages as they happen (sysklog needed)
as root, tail -f /var/log/messages (shows last 10 lines, use a number in front of f for more lines)
# What processes are running
ps -A
# Find a process by name
ps -ef | grep -i <plain text>
For example, XCDroast
ps -ef xcdroast
# See current environment list, or pipe to file
env | more
env > environmentvariablelist.txt
# Show current userid and assigned groups
# See all command aliases for the current user
# See rpms installed on current system
rpmquery --all | less
rpmquery --all > <filename>
rpmquery --all | grep -i <plaintext>
Autospec for tarballs
RPM tools
# What directory am I using
# Get ls colors in less
ls --color=always | less -R
Look at man <command> or info <command> for the flags I used and for other options you can use for bash commands.

# Are there any good Linux books?
# Good Linux books
Running Linux
Rute User's Tutorial and Exposition

# OK, I'm game. Now I want to try a new kernel!
# Compiling/installing a new kernel
Kernel compiling guide for newbies

# I want to play some games in Linux
# Linux and games
Linux Gamers' FAQ
The Linux Game List
Wine HQ
TransGaming Technologies for winex
The Linux kernel preemption project
Gentoo has a kernel with the gaming patches

# ARRGH! I hosed my box
LILO fails: Error messages and their interpretation
Multiboot with LILO HOWTO
LILO, Linux Crash Rescue HOW-TO
Installing a bootloader
Multiboot with GRUB Mini-HOWTO
Linux+Win9x+Grub HOWTO
Linux Bootable Business Card
Windows 2000 Recovery Console
Windows XP Recovery Console

Distribution specific links and help sites
# Debian links
Installing Debian GNU/Linux 3.0 For Intel x86
The Very Verbose Debian 3.0 Installation Walkthrough
Debian Package Management HOWTO Version 1.1

# Mandrake links
Mandrake home page
Mandrake Users website
Easy urpmi config for Mandrake
urpmi mini-HOWTO
All You Ever Wanted to Know About Urpmi But Never Dared Asking Before
Maximum RPM
You didn't install the developmental packages? As root, command:
urpmi gcc
An Introduction to the Midnight Commander. You can install it by commanding:
urpmi mc
Midnight Commander home page

# Red Hat & Fedora links
The Fedora HOWTO explains the different software managers.
Maximum RPM
Easier software management: apt4rpm
Fedora Core 1 Tips and Tricks
Fedora Core 2 Tips and Tricks
Fedora Core 3 Tips and Tricks
Fedora Core 4 Tips and Tricks
apt, yum, and up2date repository settings (configuration files) for Fedora Core 3
# Handling NTFS
New Technology FileSystem (NTFS) HOWTOs
Linux NTFS project

# Slackware
The Official Guide To Slackware Linux

# Basic system administration
To change to the full root account (system administrator), if you are running X, open an x terminal and use these commands from your user account. Note the change in the prompt. You can do the same from a virtual terminal as well, but you can't open an x terminal to do so.
[fancy@tinwhistle fancy]$ su -
Password: <give root password and press enter>
[root@tinwhistle root]#
Remember, now whatever you command in root (it's the "god" mode. You can bless or destroy at your whim) usually gets done if enough system is left to carry out the command. Sit on your hands and read the commands you type at least 3 times before pressing the enter key when in root.
# Misc cool stuff
# Create a partition label
e2label /dev/hdb1 <mountpoint>
# Allow root to use your X session
xhost +local:
su -
export DISPLAY=:0.0
# Playing radio
Try using these settings for your helper apps in your browser:
MIME Type		Helper
audio/m3u 		xmms
audio/x-scpls		xmms
video/x-ms-asf		xmms
audio/rm		realplay
audio/x-pn-realaudio	realplay
audio/x-realaudio	realplay
Some guides to common tasks asked about here.
# Clone a distro to another drive or move directories around
Install drive in box (assuming IDE1 slave for examples) and ensure BIOS can detect it. Boot into Linux and login to your user's account. Open an x terminal and partition and format the new drive as you wish
[fancy@tinwhistle fancy]$ su -
[root@tinwhistle root]# fdisk /dev/hdb
Exit with w to write the partition table.

Format the partitions with the chosen filesystems:
mke2fs /dev/hdbX -> ext2
mke2fs -j /dev/hdbX -> ext3
mkswap -> swap
mkreiserfs -> reiserfs
mkfs.xfs -> xfs

Make directories for source and destination mount points. You need these to keep out of an endless loop of copying itsself over and over.
[root@tinwhistle root]# mkdir /mnt/source
[root@tinwhistle root]# mkdir /mnt/destination
Mount your os partitions that you want to clone on /mnt/source
Mount your partitions on the new drive, making directory entries for your separate partitions (/boot, /home, /var etc.). If you are just copying a directory such as var, just cd to the directory you wish to copy instead of mounting partitions on /mnt/source.

Now, cd to /mnt/source and pipe it over with tar
[root@tinwhistle root]# cd /mnt/source
[root@tinwhistle source]# tar cf - . | (cd /mnt/destination && tar xBfp -)
Edit /etc/fstab as needed, install the boot loader if you moved a whole distro, and it should work when it is installed in it's final position.

# Modem and connection troubleshooting
WinModems and Linux
Modem NHFs
Conexant/Rockwell modem HOWTO
The Unofficial PCTel Linux Driver page
I finaly got my PcTel hsp56 mr modem to work
PcTel PCT789 Compilation in Fedora Core 1
Linux driver for Winmodems with Lucent Apollo (ISA) and Mars (PCI) chipsets
Lucent AMR modem listed as an Intel AC'97 - Smart Link Modems
The kppp Handbook
Dial-up Networking Configuration Using KDE's Kppp
Troubleshooting ISP Connection Problems
Connecting to AOL with Linux

# Configuring a real hardware pci modem
To configure a pci modem, open an x terminal and su - to the root account:
[fancy@tinwhistle fancy]$ su -
[root@tinwhistle root]# cat /proc/pci
Look for your modem in the returned list. Look for something similar to mine:
  Bus  2, device   2, function  0:
    Communication controller: PCI device 151f:0000 (TOPIC SEMICONDUCTOR Corp) (rev 0).
      IRQ 5.
      I/O at 0xc400 [0xc407].
With this info, I use the setserial command:
[root@tinwhistle root]# setserial /dev/ttyS2 irq 5 port 0xc400 uart 16550a
Then I test the modem with the internet connection wizard and it works. I edit /etc/rc.d/rc.local and enter the setserial command:
[root@tinwhistle root]# pico -w /etc/rc.d/rc.local
My file for an example
# Redhat /etc/rc.d/rc.local file
# This script will be executed *after* all the other init scripts.
# You can put your own initialization stuff in here if you don't
# want to do the full Sys V style init stuff.

touch /var/lock/subsys/local
# configure modem
setserial /dev/ttyS2 irq 5 port 0xc400 uart 16550a
Now, it remains configured after a reboot.

# Common e-mail tools
sendmail - postfix - sends mail to local users (and internet when configured correctly)
fetchmail - gets mail from internet accounts (non-Hotmail type)
procmail - sorts and delivers into separate mailboxes
mutt - mail client that sucks less than all the others
Email the Linux Way
Suresh Ramasubramanian's email guide
The Linux Mail User HOWTO
The Linux Electronic Mail Administrator HOWTO
SquirrelMail web mail
Why use Hotmail when there is LinuxMail?

Last edited by fancypiper; 03-31-2006 at 10:58 PM.
Old 04-12-2004, 02:30 PM   #2
LQ Guru
Registered: Feb 2003
Location: Sparta, NC USA
Distribution: Ubuntu 10.04
Posts: 5,141

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 60
Part 2:

# Hardware for Linux sytems
Cheap Linux Box
The Ultimate Linux Box - update
Price Watch
Computer Geeks

# OK, I tried Linux, I think it sucks and I don't like it. I want to go back to Microsoft Windows
# Microsoft's instructions: How do I uninstall Linux completely and keep/use Microsoft Windows only?
How to Remove Linux and Install Microsoft Windows 2000
How to Remove Linux and Install Microsoft Windows XP
You can remove lilo from the mbr with
/sbin/lilo -u
You can remove grub or lilo from the mbr by booting with a Microsoft Windows 98 boot floppy (at the prompt, type fdisk /mbr), or by using the Windows XP Recovery Console or the Windows 2000 Recovery Console

# Basic Microsoft Windows security (can be out of date as I don't really keep up)
Firewall: ZoneAlarm Virus protection: AntiVir
Multi spyware removal utility: Lavasoft

# Microsoft Windows help sites
Windows BBS
Microsoft's Computer Management

Last edited by fancypiper; 04-25-2004 at 05:49 PM.
Old 04-16-2004, 12:43 AM   #3
Bruce Hill
HCL Maintainer
Registered: Jun 2003
Location: McCalla, AL, USA
Distribution: Arch, Gentoo
Posts: 6,939

Rep: Reputation: 129Reputation: 129
Awesome, dude! This should be a sticky -- perhaps Jeremy will notice.
Old 04-30-2004, 06:54 PM   #4
LQ Guru
Registered: Feb 2003
Location: Sparta, NC USA
Distribution: Ubuntu 10.04
Posts: 5,141

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 60
Old 04-30-2004, 07:32 PM   #5
LQ Guru
Registered: Sep 2003
Location: Danville, VA
Distribution: Slackware, Windows, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Mac OS X
Posts: 5,296

Rep: Reputation: 168Reputation: 168
excellent post, this will be a great reference, thx.
Old 06-11-2004, 05:48 AM   #6
LQ Guru
Registered: Feb 2003
Location: Sparta, NC USA
Distribution: Ubuntu 10.04
Posts: 5,141

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 60
Someone wants to see this, so I am bumping.
Old 06-11-2004, 05:54 AM   #7
Ming Dao
Registered: Oct 2003
Location: Earth
Distribution: Linux
Posts: 30

Rep: Reputation: 15
Not only have I bookmarked this thread, but I've also referred it. This is just a suggestion, but I think the line

# Modem and connection troubleshooting

should be bold. Good post - thanks for the links.
Old 06-11-2004, 06:06 AM   #8
LQ Guru
Registered: Feb 2003
Location: Sparta, NC USA
Distribution: Ubuntu 10.04
Posts: 5,141

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 60
How about bold and red?
Old 06-11-2004, 06:15 AM   #9
Bruce Hill
HCL Maintainer
Registered: Jun 2003
Location: McCalla, AL, USA
Distribution: Arch, Gentoo
Posts: 6,939

Rep: Reputation: 129Reputation: 129
That post was my buddy - I use your link, too. Don't know about the red, because I don't even have a modem in this comp.
But if I needed to set one up, I'd probably be looking that way. Bold is good. ;-)
Old 06-11-2004, 07:01 AM   #10
LQ Guru
Registered: Feb 2003
Location: Sparta, NC USA
Distribution: Ubuntu 10.04
Posts: 5,141

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 60
Ok, I un-redded it and just left it bolded.
Old 06-11-2004, 07:49 AM   #11
Bruce Hill
HCL Maintainer
Registered: Jun 2003
Location: McCalla, AL, USA
Distribution: Arch, Gentoo
Posts: 6,939

Rep: Reputation: 129Reputation: 129
IMO it might be good to make each separate topic heading bold, such as this one:

# Common e-mail tools

Of course, it's your wonderful links and guides. I was just thinking it would make
it easier to find individuals topics.
Old 01-22-2005, 01:39 AM   #12
Senior Member
Registered: Jan 2003
Posts: 2,786

Rep: Reputation: 374Reputation: 374Reputation: 374Reputation: 374

Don't want a valuable resource to get lost
Old 03-31-2006, 09:08 PM   #13
Bruce Hill
HCL Maintainer
Registered: Jun 2003
Location: McCalla, AL, USA
Distribution: Arch, Gentoo
Posts: 6,939

Rep: Reputation: 129Reputation: 129
Bump ... after a year, it wouldn't hurt to put it at the top of this forum again. ;-)



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