LinuxQuestions.org
Visit Jeremy's Blog.
Go Back   LinuxQuestions.org > Forums > Linux Forums > Linux - General
User Name
Password
Linux - General This Linux forum is for general Linux questions and discussion.
If it is Linux Related and doesn't seem to fit in any other forum then this is the place.

Notices


Reply
  Search this Thread
Old 05-01-2005, 09:45 AM   #1
Aphex_Twin2
Member
 
Registered: May 2005
Posts: 54

Rep: Reputation: 15
Linux general questions


I am a new user to Linux and had a few questions. If they exist in a FAQ already you can provide a link, but I would ask you to still post it here.

What is the Linux equivalent to Windows executable files (com, exe, bat), what are the extensions and perhaps notable diferences ?

What is the diference between KDE and Gnome and specifically, what are they?

What is the X Windows System?

Are there applications that can run in multiple distributions (or does everything have to be specifically compiled )?

Compliation seems straightforward but repetitive (./configure make INSTALL...). Wouldn't it be much easier to simply use a universal compiler (a point and click GUI thing that configures itself automatically and downloads it's libraries if needed)?

How does BeOS difer from Linux and what are the compatibilities, if any?

Is there a Linux GUI develompent system symilar to Visual Studio?

Is there a Linux distro devoted entirely or partially to mimicking Windows?

I hear there are no such things as Linux viruses, this sounds a bit outlandish. Are there really no Linux viruses?


Where are the Windows Linux equivalent folders and files situated:
Desktop
Start Menu
Start-Up

Where does Linux store it's system configuration files?

Can Linux be handled in such a way that running processes can be assigned specific processor and memory shares and the relationships between them (running processes) to be monitored and controlled (yes, I am a control freak)? How do you see what processes are running at a given time?


Can I set up a network consisting of both Linux and Windows computers and what tools are avalible for that task?





Well, that's what I'm wondering right about now. If you can answer any of the above I would be most greatful
 
Old 05-01-2005, 10:05 AM   #2
Komakino
Senior Member
 
Registered: Feb 2004
Location: Somerset, England
Distribution: Slackware 10.2, Slackware 10.0, Ubuntu 9.10
Posts: 1,938

Rep: Reputation: 55
Linux doesn't use file extensions, it's clever enough to tell a file's type by the magic number (the first couple hex codes) at the start of the file.

Gnome and KDE are Desktop Environments, in the same way that Explorer is the Windows DE. There are too numerous differences to list them here. They are different means of achieving the same end - a intuitive user interface for X11. There are other window managers besides those two though. I personally prefer fluxbox.

The X windows System is the means for displaying a windowing environment on Unix-like machines. Unlike MS Windows it does not provide any means of manipulating windows graphically (i.e. no frames, borders, dragbars, etc) it leaves that up to a Window Manager which sits on top of X and makes requests to X to resize etc based on what the user clicks. This seems complex (and it is) but it provides an extremely flexible sollution to windowing that allows the user to use any number of Window Managers or even create their own.

Applications can run on multiple distros if they are statically linked to any libraries they use. Most commercial applications will be done this way. The only reason packages are for specific distros is because they will link against the specific version of a library in that distro. This is why when you compile stuff it doesn't matter what distro you use because it will just link against which ever library versions you have installed.

The compilation routine has to be flexible because source code has to compile against several types of C compilers and various library versions. Linux users generally use GNU compilers, but it's possible to use others and users of BSD / AIX / SJD / HP-UX etc won't necessarily be using GNU compilers. Don't forget source code has to compile for them too. The ./configure / make / make install path is flexible enough to allow compilation on different architectures.

BeOS is only similar to Linux in the sense that they are both POSIX compliant. Linux binaries won't run on BeOS and vice versa. BeOS uses a BeOS kernel, Linux uses the linux kernel

There are several distros designed to look like windows, but in honesty if you want windows then use windows

There are a few proof-of-concept linux viruses, but nothing with any real threat. The difference is that in windows any user can alter the system. In linux only the super user can. Therefore for a virus to be effective it has to be run as super user. If you're sensible and only log in as a normal user then the chances of something terrible happening are remote. A lot of windows viruses work on the assumption that users use a particular program for a task - e.g. a virus might exploit a bug in Outlook Express knowing that 90% of users use it. In linux there is so much choice that there's no guarantee people all use the same programs for a task. Also, the open source nature of most programs means that any potential security holes are likely to be spotted by someone, somewhere, analysing the code. The short answer is that the threat from linux viruses is virtually nil.

Start-Up and Start-Menu would be different depending on the window manager you use. Likewise desktop.

System wide config files are under /etc somewhere. Config files specific to a user are dot files (hidden files start with a . ) in the user's home directory. E.g. my vim config file is .vimrc in my home dir.

ps ax
pstree

both tell you running processes. The "nice" command will let you assign priority to a process. Type "man nice" to read the manual page. That goes for any other command too...(eg: man man)

Yes, your choices for a dual system network are either running Samba under linux (the easier choice) or getting your windows machines to play nice with NFS (which is actually a damn site easier to set up on linux, but windows support for it is patchy)
 
Old 05-01-2005, 10:15 AM   #3
win32sux
LQ Guru
 
Registered: Jul 2003
Location: Los Angeles
Distribution: Ubuntu
Posts: 9,870

Rep: Reputation: 380Reputation: 380Reputation: 380Reputation: 380
Re: Linux general questions

Quote:
Originally posted by Aphex_Twin2
What is the Linux equivalent to Windows executable files (com, exe, bat), what are the extensions and perhaps notable diferences ?
well, linux has shell scripts which will work on any distro, but as for binary packages every distro tends to have their own binary package system, or at least one based on the three primary ones: RPM, DEB, and TGZ (redhat, debian, and slackware)... also keep in mind that linux doesn't determine filetype from extensions...

Quote:
What is the diference between KDE and Gnome and specifically, what are they?
they are desktop environments... the main difference is that gnome is built using GTK and KDE is built using QT...

http://www.gtk.org/

http://www.trolltech.com/products/qt/

Quote:
What is the X Windows System?
it is a Graphical User Interface for UNIX and UNIX-like systems (such as GNU/Linux)... desktop environments and window managers run on top of this GUI...

Quote:
Are there applications that can run in multiple distributions (or does everything have to be specifically compiled )?
yes, there are apps that you will be able to install on most any distro... an example would be firefox... also, you don't need to compile your own binaries if you have a binary package available for your distro...

Quote:
Compliation seems straightforward but repetitive (./configure make INSTALL...). Wouldn't it be much easier to simply use a universal compiler (a point and click GUI thing that configures itself automatically and downloads it's libraries if needed)?
yes, it would be easier, but it wouldn't necessarily be better... either way, if you're really interested in this keep your eye on this project: http://www.autopackage.org/

Quote:
How does BeOS difer from Linux and what are the compatibilities, if any?
the major difference is (or was) the license... one is commercial, one is free... i'm not sure what the technical compatibilities are/were, if any...

Quote:
Is there a Linux GUI develompent system symilar to Visual Studio?
both kde and gnome come with apps for GUI development for QT and GTK respectively...

http://www.kdevelop.org/

http://glade.gnome.org/

Quote:
Is there a Linux distro devoted entirely or partially to mimicking Windows?
there's several that try to be as familiar as possible... one that comes to mind: http://linspire.com/

Quote:
I hear there are no such things as Linux viruses, this sounds a bit outlandish. Are there really no Linux viruses?
at the present time there aren't any... trust me, when one comes out, YOU'LL KNOW ABOUT IT (from the media coverage)...

Quote:
Where are the Windows Linux equivalent folders and files situated:
Desktop
Start Menu
Start-Up
this isn't really a linux question, it's more of a desktop environment question and it varies depending on which you are using...

Quote:
Where does Linux store it's system configuration files?
the standard location is /etc

Quote:
Can Linux be handled in such a way that running processes can be assigned specific processor and memory shares and the relationships between them (running processes) to be monitored and controlled (yes, I am a control freak)?
take a look at SELinux and see if that does it for you:

http://selinux.sourceforge.net/

http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/

Quote:
How do you see what processes are running at a given time?
using the command top

Quote:
Can I set up a network consisting of both Linux and Windows computers and what tools are avalible for that task?
yes, take a look at samba: http://www.samba.org/


Last edited by win32sux; 05-01-2005 at 10:29 AM.
 
Old 05-01-2005, 10:15 AM   #4
Aphex_Twin2
Member
 
Registered: May 2005
Posts: 54

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 15
Fast and efficient (as Linux claims to be)

Thank you

Last edited by Aphex_Twin2; 05-01-2005 at 10:18 AM.
 
Old 05-01-2005, 10:40 AM   #5
Aphex_Twin2
Member
 
Registered: May 2005
Posts: 54

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 15
I'm getting a little frustrated with this Autopackage... WHERE exactly do I download it? I hear all these good things about it and nobody bothers to give a link on how to geti t
 
Old 05-01-2005, 11:04 AM   #6
Komakino
Senior Member
 
Registered: Feb 2004
Location: Somerset, England
Distribution: Slackware 10.2, Slackware 10.0, Ubuntu 9.10
Posts: 1,938

Rep: Reputation: 55
Quote:
Originally posted by Aphex_Twin2
I'm getting a little frustrated with this Autopackage... WHERE exactly do I download it? I hear all these good things about it and nobody bothers to give a link on how to geti t
That confused me for ages Download something that is autopackaged...such as their null package or GAIM, make the autopackage executable and then run it It installs the autopackage framework when you try to install the first package.
 
  


Reply


Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off



Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Xbox Linux General Questions cortezz44 Linux - Software 0 04-10-2005 06:08 AM
General Linux questions tttstarr Linux - Newbie 8 01-25-2005 10:57 AM
Some general linux newb questions Levitate Linux - Newbie 3 08-05-2004 10:40 AM
General security questions about Linux (RH() glenn69 Linux - Security 2 07-20-2004 01:23 AM
General Linux Questions For Test TrevorK Linux - General 2 07-23-2003 12:29 PM

LinuxQuestions.org > Forums > Linux Forums > Linux - General

All times are GMT -5. The time now is 08:49 AM.

Main Menu
Advertisement
My LQ
Write for LQ
LinuxQuestions.org is looking for people interested in writing Editorials, Articles, Reviews, and more. If you'd like to contribute content, let us know.
Main Menu
Syndicate
RSS1  Latest Threads
RSS1  LQ News
Twitter: @linuxquestions
Open Source Consulting | Domain Registration