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Old 06-15-2004, 09:08 AM   #1
wasabi
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File System / Partition Setup


Ok I will start off by saying I have been getting fairly comfortable with Linux, I just have a few questions that I am having trouble getting answered.

When I was using Windows I always created additional partitions to store my files. For Example

C: system files
G: media storage (music, videos, etc)
H: personal documents

That way, when the Windows hosed itself, I could format the system partition, reinstall windows to that partition and all my data remained intact.

Now on to Linux

Is this possible in Linux? I want to do pretty much the same thing. Even if I just mount my home partition somewhere else or at least my files.

Where do I mount these? SHould I just create a new one like /storage/, /media/, /docs/, or should I mount them under another one of the mount points already created.

What filesystem should I choose? I think my other ones by default are ext3 or something.

Any help would be greatly appreciated.... I am beginning to get desperate.

 
Old 06-15-2004, 09:33 AM   #2
ahh
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Yes, this is possible, and indeed encouraged for the very reasons you give.

How you do it depends very much on how much disk space you have, but it is a good idea to have seperate partitions for /home, /usr, and /var. But of course you can have as many as you see fit (and your disks will allow).

/usr will hold all your program files and libraries, /home will hold personal files and per user configuration files for each user, e.g. /home/wasabi, and I personally have a partition /multimedia for music etc:

You can mount a partition anywhere provided the mount point you choose is empty. in windows speak this means you can use any folder to mount a partition provided it is empty, or simply create a new one anywhere you like - just make sure it is somewhere you have read/write permissions.

The filesystem depends on the size of the partition, for a small partition (1GB?) use ext2, for larger ones use a journalling filesystem like ext3 or reiserfs (otherwise it is a real pain when your system decides to check the filesystem on boot!)
 
Old 06-15-2004, 10:03 AM   #3
wasabi
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Ahh,

Thankyou for your very helpful response. Maybe some specifics about my setup will help. I really need some direction here although your post was incredibly helpful.

I have an 80Gb drive which can be broken down any way as long as I have

30 gigs for Media
10 gigs for Docs
05 gigs for Temp storage (large torrents, etc.)

How would you recommend setting this up and what filesystems would you recommend for this. I am using Fedora Core 2, so should I just let the partitioning tool create a default partition scheme and then modify it (cut out chunks for my data).

or

Should I manually create the partition table, and if so, how much space do I need for Swap etc....

BTW I have 384 mb of system Ram (800 mhz RDRam)

Thanks again
 
Old 06-15-2004, 11:32 AM   #4
ahh
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Hey! You mean I actually helped someone - cool. Maybe I wont be a newbie forever!!

Anyway, I can tell you how I would do it, but I am sure many others would do it differently!

First of all if you are happy partitioning I would sort out your partitions from the start, and not mess about modifying the default partitions.

Linux really requires a boot partition, a swap partition and a root partition as a minimum. As this only leaves 1 spare partition so you will have to make one of your partitions into an extended partition.

This will give
/dev/hda1 - /boot - 100M - ext2 (stuff to boot from, kernel etc)
/dev/hda2 - / - 10G - reiserfs/ext3 (stuff the system needs to run)
/dev/hda3 - extended partition
~/dev/hda5 - /home - 20G - reiserfs/ext3 (all your docs)
~/dev/hda6 - /usr - 20G - reiserfs/ext3 (program files and libraries)
~/dev/hda7 - /media - 30G - reiserfs/ext3 (multimedia stuff)
/dev/hda4 - swap - 500M

(the ~ just signifies that these are the extended partitions on /dev/hda3)

Adjust sizes to fit! (approximations only)

It is difficult to reccomend partition sizes for other people as their requirements vary so much. For example, if you compile your programs from source and keep the source files around you will need a much larger /usr than someone who downloads RPM's and then deletes them or stores them on CD. The only thing you can be sure of is that you will get it wrong first time But once you understand your computer usage and how it affects your system you will be in a better position to accurately judge your partition sizes next time.

If you are interested in the *correct* file system hierarchy take a look at

http://www.pathname.com/fhs/

Last edited by ahh; 06-15-2004 at 11:35 AM.
 
Old 06-15-2004, 11:54 AM   #5
wasabi
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thanks so much..

very helpful.

I will let you know how it turns out.
 
Old 06-15-2004, 11:57 AM   #6
wasabi
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ok sorry one more question

I hear so many people say that your home partition should be mounted somewhere else. How would I go about doing this. Is it just like telling the system where to find the home directory? Kind of like moving the location of the my documents folder in Windows?
 
Old 06-15-2004, 12:32 PM   #7
ahh
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If you are the only user on the pc you will have just /home/yourusername, normally set up automatically when you create a user. If there are others they will have /home/theirusername and so on.

It may be that they are suggesting a seperate partition for each user so one user cant take them all down if they somehow manage to corrupt the partition where the home directory resides.

If you wanted to do it this way, instead of mounting /dev/hda5 (in the above example) on /home, you would mount it on /home/yourusername.

The downside to this is that if you are going to have other users you will have to make extra partitions for them now (but you may not know how many you will need), or repartition later (risky), or have their home directory on the same partition as /home (which would now be /dev/hda2, so if they corrupt the partition, instead of losing your personal info you may lose all the system files).

Personally, unless you know how many users you are likely to accumulate, I think having them all on a /home partition is preferable, but it's your system and you are the administrator!

Of course, they may be suggesting something entirely different, and preferable to what I have suggested. If you know where these people are, or how to contact them, it may be a good idea to ask them before going ahead.
 
Old 06-15-2004, 12:58 PM   #8
wasabi
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this is what I had before asking you..

doesn't this look wrong?

 
Old 06-15-2004, 01:46 PM   #9
ahh
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Well if I interpretate this correctly you have

/dev/hda1 - /boot
/dev/hda2 - /storage
/dev/hda3 - /docs
/dev/hda4 - extended partition
~/dev/hda5 - /tmp
~/dev/hda6 - /

I don't know if it is wrong as such, as you can do what you like, but it is not traditional!

Firstly, there doesn't seem to be any swap partition, which, while not absolutely nessessary, is considered beneficial.

Secondly, it is more usual to have / and /tmp as primary partitions (or not to have a seperate partition for /tmp).

Thirdly, unless the docs are shared between different users, /home/yourusername/docs is more common. (in fact, anything personal would go in /home/yourusername/whatever. Even if it is a single user pc now, it may not always be so!)

With these points in mind (and if you decided not to add any swap space) it would look like

/dev/hda1 - /boot
/dev/hda2 - /
/dev/hda3 - /tmp
/dev/hda4 - extended partition
~/dev/hda5 - /storage
~/dev/hda6 - /home (then put your docs in /home/name/docs)
 
Old 06-15-2004, 02:02 PM   #10
wasabi
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ok, it's just my concern is that I am not sure how to specify what is extended and what is primary through the tool provided in the Fedora install. I think it is called Drake.
 
Old 06-15-2004, 02:40 PM   #11
ahh
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Sorry, I can't help you there as I have never used fedora.

You could try downloading the x86 installation guide from

http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-9-Manual/

That may contain the answers.
 
Old 06-16-2004, 03:20 PM   #12
wasabi
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ok its working great. Fedora is running faster than ever. You were right about not getting it right the first time, but now I know exactly what I am doing.

Thanks again

Josh
 
Old 10-08-2006, 11:21 AM   #13
tweety_noty
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problem

hi friends,
hope some one would help me in solving this problem. i am working in Linux red hat OS. for the past 2 days my system is getting restarted once in 3 mins. as soon as i log in, it gets restarted.i wanna fix the problem and start gettin back to work.plz tell me wat to be done.
thanks.
 
  


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