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Introduction to Linux - A Hands on Guide
This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter.
For more advanced trainees it can be a desktop reference, and a collection of the base knowledge needed to proceed with system and network administration. This book contains many real life examples derived from the author's experience as a Linux system and network administrator, trainer and consultant. They hope these examples will help you to get a better understanding of the Linux system and that you feel encouraged to try out things on your own.
Click Here to receive this Complete Guide absolutely free.
SYS is a Linux distribution easy to install and to use for beginners but even so with plenty applications for advanced users. It is a determined no-comercial distro with the main goal to make Linux and open software most easy for all kinds of users independently on their knowledge, inclusive not as a minimum distro but with plenty software and unnecessary to download and install soon more.
All principal packages - currently inclusive linux 2.6.26 (kernel), glibc 2.7 , X 7.3, mesa 7.0.3, glibc 2.7 , compiz-fusion/emerald current, gimp 2.5, OpenOffice 3.0-beta - are build by meself , alias with a long history for keep updated my server, meanwhile for the distro and with its parameters. Own basical packages rather than copied ones from other distros are the clean and secure base of reliable distros.
SYS contains an install-backup system that permits to dump an existing installation to a bootable/re-installable CD/DVD. This is very easy to use for backups/clones of your own personalized system, inclusive for making sometimes releases and reinstall the cleaned-up system for continue to develop it forwards. Either additionally to reinstall the system or exclusively, either after reinstalling or at the first use, one also can install packages, copy files, etc., what makes the system very flexible and good maintainable. The production of new install DVDs by SYS works immediately and don't depend on special kernel modules or versions. It also contains a tool for compile programs from source-code and pack them.
SYS has a rescue system, which starts within 15 secs and which has plenty tools, like mc, ntfs-3g, testdisk/fotorecover, foremost, etc., to do plenty things, including to access/save files from a broken Windows system.
This is not a live CD. The philosophy is contrary: most easy, fast, consequently perform a definitive installation of Linux. Coming to Linux should be more determined than 'trying' many times a live CD however continuing with the old system installed. In the time a live CD needs to start, or worse even to install, one can already have installed a definitive system. Once you insert the install CD and boot from it, SYS Linux installs within 15-45 minutes and asks nothing -- nor if one want it. It comments out other systems in lilo.conf , but on the desktop is visible a folder with it. Also, wine is installed. Anyway, users coming from other systems can use their files etc. almost like before.
SYS is an ideal system for beginners, but also for advanced users.
It's pretended as a long-term distro, because the compilations/packages of new program versions and install DVDs I continue anyway for my server and for my neighbours/friends.
SYS has an excellent update politics. The backup/install-system permits the immediate creation of a install-DVD with corrections or updates. Before any version, normally have some -rc 's , and after, some -r 's , for which are published also corresponding service packages which can be downloaded and applied on an earlier installation.
Install DVDs and packages can be downloaded from mirrors of good quality. The download links below are given to the folders, pls. take always the most recent install DVD, or service package for apply on an existing installation.
SYS includes a very easy and secure tool to set up an ADSL connection, and tools for easily set up wifi, bluetooth, mobil-phone and webcam. It has everything for the use and work with sound, video and internet. It also includes compiz-fusion and mesa, and who has a graphic card for which exists an open/mesa driver, can use the 3D desktop and start it with compiz-manager (however one has to substitute or configure xorg.conf in the folder /etc/X11, depending on the graphic card). For
more specialized work, SYS contains all tools for program development (kernel and packages are compiled and our admin tools are developed within itself) , servers (domain, web, ftp, irc, rsync) , for lazer, household, study, commerce, engenhering, science.
Before, please verify in BIOS/SETUP that your DVD drive is selected as the 1st boot device (typing DEL when the computer starts, and then search under the BOOT item).
The installation is EXTREMELY EASY -- nothing to answer or to do -- only put the CD in the drive, restart the computer, wait until the CD comes out and remove it. Messages in Portugues and German but abbreviated also in English. By default, there is no root password after the installation; for security you can set one by #passwd root .
The installation itself is fast - between 10 min. on a modern computer and 1 hour on a 486 computer, for 17 GB software. However, it can take long time and even fail to resize an existing partition, especially when it's big and almost full.
The full-automatical installation is the default. The installer finds automatically empty space or create it by resizing half-full partitions and passes over other potential problems what lets other distro's installation fail. If necessary to get space, also some data of an anyway spoiled, no-reparable no-Linux partition can be lost. This is in order for, specially for no-specialists and persons coming from other systems to Linux , most easy, sure and fast result in a huge, good-working, satisfactory Linux system. Inclusive, prevent them overformatting or spoiling their good partitions, like often happens.
However, for the case of problems, or for persons with better knowledge are given the following informations:
If you prefere to do any work before the installation - like: create empty space manually or save files or repair a broken system or do other work - then select the 'rescue' system , and leave from it with 'exit' to start the installation or by rebooting with CTRL-ALT-C.
When, by any reason, the installation fails, then it goes in the rescue system. There, please type 'mc' and inspect the logfile , to see the reasons and any problems, that you can mail to the author or to the support forum.
The installation needs appr. 4x the space of the install .iso , currently 18 GB. This has to be present -- either as unpartitioned space on the disk, or as the empty part of any formatted primary partition or the first logical partition which then will be re-dimensioned (when you have Windows installed, it is good to execute chkdisk, before install SYS). The installation fails when there isn't enough empty space.
Solutions for some problems which can occur during the installation of SYS or any other distro:
ˇ Problems with burning the install .iso after downloading: Beginners or users of another system should use its DVD-burning-tool. For Linux, what's working good is #growisofs -overburn -Z /dev/dvd=SYS_Linux-0.23.iso (instead of dvd pls put hdb or the name of your DVD burner). This is f.ex. within the rescue system inside the .iso itself what can be used without burning on a DVD
ˇ The install / rescue sistem dont start, or stops quickly with an error message (such as: install DVD not found). Seldom hardware needs special parameters for the Linux kernel can start. Alternative combinations can be used by typing a, b, c, d ... quickly when comes the first screen with info text.
ˇ Problems reading the DVD: the installation needs about one hour without finishing. Or it stops with reading errors or lzma decoding errors (logfile) Burn the DVD again, and when that won't help, use another DVD burner/reader. When mounting the .iso or the DVD manually, then observe it has format udf , not iso9660 (see below). Sometimes the end of the DVD cannot be readed because the copy wasn't concluded correctly or the reader is old. Then often the installation dont start (f.ex. lilo isn't present) or there come many error messages. Repeat to record the DVD using another recording program or recorder.
ˇ Problems with resizing existing partitions: This can take long time or even fail. Only when there is not enough unpartioned space on the hard-disk, the installer resizes half-full partitions. Because the most beginners don't would get it through to make partitions or reparations manually; because many people come to Linux when their system spoiled; because these people typically don't would pay expensive comercial services, so that their data are lost anyway; because however advanced users could use the rescue sistem for a manual saving, in order to assegurate the move to Linux and a successful instalation inconditionally, any no-Linux partition what after some attempts to be repaired and resized continues no-mountable, will be deleted (until SYS v. 0.19) or cutted at the end (v. 20) to make space for the instalation if necessary. When there are only Linux partitions and resizing isn't successful, then the program goes to rescue, because in this case the user don't need to be converted to Linux but know it already and can help themselves. The best is, to make 18 GB or more free, unpartioned space before the instalation or within the rescue system.
ˇ Defects on the hard disk. The system installs, but doesn't work correct or nor starts, reclaiming about missing files and that the file system has errors. Beginners can simply install it a 2nd time, affirming expressively to do so at the advice that SYS is already installed; that installation will be placed more at the end of the hard disk, hopefully on a space without problems. Advanced users can enter into 'rescue', localize the defects with #badblocks, make behind it 18 GB or more
unpartitioned space, test it, and repeat the installation.
ˇ The rescue system can be used before/without/for making space of the hard-disc, resize partitions, save files. Also for burning a DVD -- either by mounting the downloaded .iso with #mount SYS_Linux-0.23.iso /cdrom -t udf -o loop,ro,unhide and then go therein with #cd /cdrom, or by downloading the rescue/backup system alone , unpack it into a folder and then go there; after that type #chroot . and then #mount proc /proc -t proc .
Historically, SYS resulted naturally from the following conditions, which also determine its politics: * Compilation and packaging of many programs for keep updated the own computer and server; * Copying the own instalation for friends and neighbours; * Observation of problems what no-specialists have with the instalation and use of Linux, defense of these problems and refuse to correct them by other distros and programmers; * general discusion about the not-coming-wanting desktop-usability of Linux. From the first of these conditions it was only a small step to dump my system on a back-installable DVD together with some most-easy install and admin tools, realized finally because of the last of these conditions.
Packages were put for download from the server www.monkey.is-a-geek.net since '6/07 . As also linux, glibc etc. were own compiled and packed, the identity crisis what Linux distro is running there, generally was responded that it is not any previous but an own one, so it was called MonkeyNet Linux. In '11/07 was made an install DVD, and because of the politics that everything has to be most easy, it was called SYS.
The first DVDs were used and distributed manually. The first packages were made in Copaya/Matoury, later in Cayenne; the install DVD and admin tools in Cayenne; the first installations outside the development computer were at friends in Copaya, then in Cayenne and Macapa. The 1st mirror, of version 0.17, was at serversupportforum.de, temporarily; the 1st stable mirror at distromania.com.
Of many programs, SYS contains the most recent version. Of some programs are included development versions when reliable enough, but also the last stable packages can be download from the mirrors.
All essential programs for the system are adapted, compiled, packed by SYS itself. W.r.t. secondary packages, it's prefered to spend the limited available time for compile, pack, and make generally available programs not yet done by other distros, and we use vice versa packages by them in their original form rather than repacking them without recompiling or changing just the signature or similar practics.
Our packages *mn.tgz (MonkeyNet Linux) and *sys.tgz (SYS Linux) are almost compatible with the most distros which can use the .tgz format
On the mirrors, of our packages are contained the most recent version in the main folder and older versions in /old.
For the versions 0.19 , 0.20-rc2 , 0.22 , 0.23-rc4 is given support over longer time. Independently on the general possibility to update packages, for these versions we collect corrections of known errors or urgent corrections which are included either on service packages or in the installer packages of these versions. On the mirrors, they are in /old. For other versions can be applied the service pack of the previous one. However, it's preferable to update the whole instalation from time to time.
You can find the Install-DVD at the mirrors in the download folder as SYS_Linux-<version>.iso (format udf) .
License: GPL for our install and admin tools and for the most packages, for a small number of programs other permission of free distribution. SYS is a no-comercial Linux distro.
Would you recommend the product? yes | Price you paid?: None indicated | Rating: 0
full-automatical and fast installation, most easy for beginners; own packages (incl. kernel 188.8.131.52); plenty programs 17GB, inclusive all development tools; tool for produce install DVDs from the own personalized installation
SYS is continuously updated.
The last version is SYS 0.23-r3 of 27/11/2009.
Many programs were substituted by better ones, all were updated: linux 184.108.40.206 (2.6.33-rc1 in the repository) and glibc 2.7 (2.9) compiled with its headers, glib 2.17.7 (2.22.0), gcc 4.2.4, gtk+ 2.13.7 (2.18.5), pango 1.21.4 (1.26.0), cairo 1.7.4, mesa 7.0.3 (7.6-dev), X 1.4.2 (1.7.3), compiz-fusion 0.77 (0.8.4), perl 5.8.8, OpenOffice 220.127.116.1139 (3.1.0), gimp 2.5.2 (2.7.0), alsa 1.0.17, pulseaudio 0.9.10, songbird 0.8rc , banshee 1.2, flashplayer 10rc etc. The installation DVD of SYS, SYS_Linux-0.23-r3.iso , brings about 5000 or 18 GB applications, more can be downloaded from the repository. The most of them, their programmers didn't yet adapt to KDE 4, so that at the moment we stay with KDE 3.5.9 and gnome 2.23.6, in order to deliver a stable system with the biggest selection of applications and most fast and easy possible to install.
Beside of this, we provide an always-actualized "current"/snapshot install DVD called SYS_Linux.iso . It makes available in the most uncomplicated manner actual updates and corrections, and normally should be prefered for new installations.
Since version 0.23-r3 it's possible to install SYS from the downloaded .iso file, without to burn it to a DVD. For this, mount the .iso (as udf), and execute the script installiso, in seldom cases that this gives problems, unfold /boot/initrd.cpio.gz into the folder /initrd, copy installiso into it and execute it. Also, it was made an USB installer, SYS_Linux.img (which can be generated by mkimg on the .iso, too) which one can copy (with dd) onto an USB-key, memory-card or empty hard-disk. For these applications, the .iso file have to be renamed to SYS_Linux.iso (without version no.) and located on the main folder of any partition of a hard-disk, USB-key or memory-card.