After playing for a while on the Debian rescue cd, I got the package situation under control. I removed the Virtualbox packages, got rsyslog to install properly and ubuntu-minimal installed correctly. As far as I can tell, the OS itseld is just fine. Everything is there and installed correctly. However, the system will still not boot. I get an error message
Mount: Mount /dev/sda1 on /root failed: No such device
at which point I am dumped into a busybox shell. I have been googling for hours and coming up with nothing. I tried running fsck and reconfiguring initrd, and still nothing. I have no idea what could be wrong at this point.
PS. 1 oddity, init's config file has raid devices listed, which doesn't make sense since this machine has only 1 hdd. However, I didn't set it up so there could have been a raid at some point. Also, I know LVM2 is being used.