It indicates a driver problem. Just to see a good one, look at the output from my old box
OpenGL vendor string: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
OpenGL renderer string: Mesa DRI R600 (RV730 9495) 20090101 x86/MMX+/3DNow!+/SSE TCL DRI2
OpenGL version string: 2.1 Mesa 7.9.2
OpenGL shading language version string: 1.20
The renderer string is coded stuff about the driver (I'm on OSS). Now yours should have different information, but not the middle finger like that appears to be raising.
Major opcode of failed request: 139 (ATIFGLEXTENSION)
If you can delete and reinstall Mesa and Catalyst (Check your Catalyst version!) That would be one way to go. If you post on phoronix forums, the developers hang out there and they will presume a high level of knowledge on your part.
Did you install catalyst through the ubuntu system, or by downloading the .run file? If there is a catalyst driver for your board packaged by ubuntu, That's the way to go.
EDIT: That error appears to mean the module is not loading. grep for fglrx
lsmod |grep fglrx
grep fglrx /var/log/Xorg.0.log