I had such problems with my Lenovo Thinkpad due to hardware-problems, the errormessage was that no synaptics-drivers are loaded (on both Windows and Linux).
With the command
you can find out which kernelmoduel is in use for the hardware-devices. It is clear that the appropriate module has to be loaded to get the device working. You can try any Live-CD, Ubuntu or Mint, they have many drivers and if it works with a live-CD, you may with the "lspci -k" command find out which driver they use.