I've this problem too recently. I first thought that this problem comes from e2fsprogs. Rebuilding e2fsprogs didn't solve the problem. You would check your kernel config, make sure CONFIG_BINFMT_SCRIPT is configured to Y (not M / N).
# Executable file formats / Emulations
# CONFIG_CORE_DUMP_DEFAULT_ELF_HEADERS is not set
# CONFIG_HAVE_AOUT is not set
From kernel help menu:
│ Say Y here if you want to execute interpreted scripts starting with │
│ #! followed by the path to an interpreter. │
│ You can build this support as a module; however, until that module │
│ gets loaded, you cannot run scripts. Thus, if you want to load this │
│ module from an initramfs, the portion of the initramfs before loading │
│ this module must consist of compiled binaries only. │
│ Most systems will not boot if you say M or N here. If unsure, say Y.