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I keep running out of space on dev/hda6 (my root partition)
I have it set to 16 GB, I use max 3GB for my stuff, the fresh installation only took up abut 3GB. I did install a bunch more packages, but I don't think that's 10GB worth!
Are there any temp directories I can delete? How do I find them?
All those hidden directories fill up with all sorts of nonsense. I bet you've been using root as your normal user.
.thumbnails will fill up with thumbnail images of ANY image you've ever seen in a file browser or file viewing application. You can usually safely delete it's contents but I haven't yet found a way to stop certain apps from regenerating them. .mplayer and .xine will fill up with playlists and all sorts of other junk.
.xsession-errors will probably be full of crash reports etc. from programs that you've run under X.
Additionally, Desktop is a nightmare if you are used to saving things on the desktop from Windows.
First, STOP USING ROOT as a normal account. That sort of accumulation only really happens in /root if someone's been logged in as root. Everything else tends to write to the filesystem in general (even X etc.).
Second, trimming the filesystem is an important skill, knowing what to delete and what not to. Do familiarise yourself with the du etc. commands so that this is not a problem. Find a nice spot to throw stuff until you are sure the system works without it (I have a habit of using /lost+found but that's not the best way to do it. a directory in the root or in /tmp is probably better), move anything you don't think you need there, then test the system with a reboot, login, etc. to check things still work before you rm them.
This also goes for finding the proper places to save things to. Don't use the crap My Documents/Desktop setup of Windows - you have a homedir and that's where you stick ALL your files. If you want a shortcut on the desktop, make a SHORTCUT (symlink), not a copy of the file. When you start to admin machines you quickly find people who use the Desktop as a filesystem in itself - don't. It decreases performance on certain setups (those that have to transmit user profiles etc.), it's easy to accidentally move/delete stuff on there, it makes backing up harder if personal files are spread everywhere and have multiple copies.
By default, 5% of any filesystem is set aside PURELY for root to use. No other user has access to that 5%. If you fill up the disk as a user, you don't need to worry becuase root will always have enough space to get stuff done (move files about, run programs etc.). If you fill up root's allocation, though, you could run into a lot more hassle to clear it up.