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Old 08-01-2003, 06:56 PM   #1
leeman_s
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Installing programs in linux


Today I downloaded my first program for slackware, which was gaim. I downloaded something that was specifically for slackware, so this is what I did. First I put the .tar.gz file in /home/lee and extracted the stuff. It made a /usr directory in /home/lee, so I figured it's supposed to be extracted to / (root).

Is that correct?

Even when I extracted it to my home directory, files were STILL extracted to /usr (not in my home directory), AND /usr was created in /home/lee.

Get what I mean?

I delete everything it made in /home/lee, and kept what it extracted when I extracted it from /

**So, did I do this correctly?

I noticed that any programs put in /usr/bin can be run from any directory. Is this why programs are installed from / ?

Next time I install I'm going to make sure it's things I have to use ./configure, make, make install, and make clean with.

So, could you guys answer my above questions, as well as this question:

1) Could somebody explain the general procedure for where to install things, and what directories will be created?

2) Will most programs need to be installed from / as root?

3) In the above example I said, was the /usr created in /home/lee meant to be in the actual /usr (mount point /usr)? It seemed a little odd having /usr in my home directory.

4) In /, there were also another directory created called /install. What is this for? Can I delete it?

5) Where can I put homemade scripts that I want to run at system startup? How do I get them to run at system startup?
 
Old 08-01-2003, 07:14 PM   #2
slakmagik
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I'd suggest going to the Slack site and reading the Slack book.

If it was a .tgz package, you do 'installpkg packagename' as root and the file can be anywhere.

If it was a tar.gz file, you can untar it in your home directory or /usr/local/src or wherever you want. You cd to that untarred directory and read all the docs like README and INSTALL and follow the instructions. There will be directories created *within* 'packagename' but that's it until 'make install' or, better, 'checkinstall'.

Sounds almost like you tried to compile a .tgz package.

For homemade scripts, you want to look into editing the stuff in /etc and /etc/rc.d. You can either include things in those files, or make those files include separate files you add.

And programs in /bin can be run from anywhere because they're on the path.
 
Old 08-01-2003, 07:20 PM   #3
leeman_s
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I want to keep a VERY organized system though. I don't want things where they generally shouldn't belong. On my windows computers I have downloaded crap all over the entire system, but I want things organized here. And I understand that it is more important where you put things in linux than in windows.

Please a little more explanation, thanks.
 
Old 08-01-2003, 09:25 PM   #4
slakmagik
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Sorry - I missed your followup somehow.

I understand the organized system vibe. One of the few tings about Linux that bugs me is the number of root directories and the number of files. Still, it's a very extraordinary thing to have a directory created under / (root). That much stays pretty stable. Most subdirectories already exist as well, such as /usr/local/bin. If you download a system tools and install it it may end up in /usr/sbin say. Some things might be in /usr/bin. Some things end up in /opt. That's where KDE and Netscape usually go. But *most* of your stuff should end up in /usr/local/bin. Your executables, I mean. DOS and Windows tend to be very app-centric, storing most all of 'fooapp' in the 'fooapp' directory. With Linux it's more in terms of function. All apps (almost) go in the various /bins or /sbins. All their documentation ends up in /doc or /man. And all their configuration ends up in /etc or ~. So when you install an app you should really only find directories with the app's name in some pre-existent subdirectory or files like the executable itself lumped in with the other executables on your system. So if your getting /install off of root or /usr under your home directory, stuff is going wrong. You should only get a directory with the same name as the tar.gz less the extension when you untar it and you should get what's usually a hidden directory with the name of the app in your home directory and various sub-subdirectories, also with the name of the app, throughout the filesystem when you install it. And, as I say, .tgz packages are binary packages that you install with 'pkgtool' and tar.gz (or tar.bz2 or whatever) are packages you compile and install with 'make install'. The installation scripts that make or pkgtool run determine where stuff goes - tha's all pretty much taken care of. You can modify but it's rarely wise to do so without need.

Hope that made some kind of sense and I know I'm missing all kinds of stuff people could add to. But I guess that should give a basic idea.
 
Old 08-01-2003, 11:44 PM   #5
leeman_s
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Yeah it makes lots of sense. It's just a different concept to grasp after using windows all of my life.

Also, I read chapters 4 - [1 before the end] of www.slackware.com/book, now I know a bunch more than before. I'm actually starting to understand!

I even used installpkg to install gaim, everything went good. Then to make sure I knew what was going on, I used removepkg, then installed it again. All I know is this is a ton better than windows. I never thought using a command-line interface would be so much easier than using the windows GUI.

So far the only GUI I use is for browsing the net, but I'm gonna look into lynx heh, just for fun.
 
Old 08-02-2003, 12:29 AM   #6
slakmagik
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Glad it did make sense. I'm getting kinda tired and making a lot of typos and worse.

And that's how I feel - the command line is always right there, ready to go - no hunting around through sequences of pointless boxes with a mouse. The Slack book's great. And if you check out a thread - I think it's called 'Slackware tips" - there's a link to a project to update it. And there's all kinds of links floating around for the Rute guide and other good stuff.

And, yeah, I have to have a GUI to surf - just can't do without my Mozilla. But that's the only thing I *really* need a GUI for. I just don't much care for lynx or links. You might want to try w3m for some console surfing - it's the closest thing I've seen to a console GUI browser.

I have to say I get frustrated as hell with Linux sometimes but I'm *sooo* much happier with it overall.
 
  


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