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I've recently designed a filesystem, and now I would like to implement it. The problem this is a large project and I don't even know where to begin. Which languages can/should I write it in? When you say you would like to copy a file or list files, what does the kernel do? When mounting or formatting, does the kernel generate a software interrupt? How much memory can I use, and what ring level will the module be given? For that matter, how does the kernel allocate memory to modules?
Anyway, this is a large project but I am determined to do it. Does anyone know where I an find documentation to make this kind of module?
You will probably also find it helpful to study how the Linux Virtual File System works. I believe that all of the file system code in the kernel is written in C (as is most of the rest of the kernel except parts that need to be assembler). Essentially, you have to define functions for a number of primitive operations (CREAT, READ, WRITE, etc.). It's been awhile since I looked at this, but there are several books out for Linux kernel development, and if you Google "Linux Virtual File System interface" or similar you should find some information.
Yes, do learn the basics by implementing a virtual filesystem. I suggest starting out with fuse, which allows you to build a virtual filesystem that implements all of the semantics of a conventional filesystem, but is all done in userspace. You will learn how a filesystem is implemented in the kernel, but without the grief of developing in kernel space.
fuse = Filesystem in USErspace.