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Eclipse + CDT will indeed do the trick. Eclipse should detect and use gcc, if you have it installed. There is also Code::Blocks, which visually looks more like VC++. It will also use your gcc and gdb. I personally prefer Code::Blocks, but it's a matter of taste.
Eclipse is slower than C::B, but is also way more stable. C::B is still under heavy development.
I think most people will suggest you use Anjuta. I have little experience with it, so I'll let others comment on it.
Distribution: Caldera, CTOS, Debian, FreeBSD, Mac OS X, Mandrake, Minix, OpenBSD, Slackware, SuSE
I'm currently using Ubuntu 7.10 and I have decided to start programming in C/C++.
Just starting out, why don't you learn the old fashioned way first without using a GUI. Use the command line tools: vi, gcc, gdb, make, etc. Do some command line stuff before graduating to point-n-click.
Its a book on programming Unix style.
As an ex-windows myself I was initially puzzled by the strange concept of modularity I kept on meeting.
The thing is that the writing of a program is divided up between its component task and then each of these has a program that does that and does that well.
If you want something a bit speadier to work with than straight gcc though, you can automate that with another command line program called make.
objects = one.o two.o three.o
g++ $(objects) -o program
g++ -c $<
This will compile 'one.cpp' 'two.cpp' and 'three.cpp' into 'program'
NOTE: g++ is gcc running in C++ mode (gcc actually automates more programs, for modularities sake)