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If you are planning to use other languages particularly Java then Eclipse is probably your best option. If you use the KDE desktop then KDevelop is a great choice. Anjuta is a reasonable IDE (although personally I have some problems with it.) But please don't let my bias cloud your choice, an IDE can be a very personal thing.
You best bet is probably to look at all three and then make a decision. If you have any specific questions about how they work, you can always come back here.
To me an IDE is a single tool that works independently or as an interface to others. I don't see how calling separate tools like vim an IDE because there is nothing integrated about them, although I agree that they can be used for the same purposes as an IDE.
Distribution: SUSE 10.0 Home soon to go (no internet conection), gentoo laptop, slack on development box
Code blocks looks quite good too http://www.codeblocks.org/. I have not used it my self as my projects are not big enough to warrent keeping track of classes etc so I just use a text editor and command line.
QT is not an IDE but a library with a few nice tools (eg qmake and designer). Version 3 had a built in code editor from the designer but that has been stripped from version 4, to allow more effort to be directed into integrating it with existing IDEs.