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Is that valid C? I know many compilers will accept it, but are they correct to do so?
When I was fixing some code to make it compile with a newer version of GCC, I needed to remove "typedef" from several constructs that I'm pretty sure were equivalent to what you have above.
Sure it is valid, straight out of the K&R bible. I prefer defining types to declaring structures in most instances, I find it most convenient.
Once one has the type defined, declaring instances and initializing them becomes quite simple. I also prefer to place type definitions in header files but that is a style preference.
K&R isn't ansi though, typically if you want to typedef a struct on the same line you either have an anonymous struct or another name for the struct
Agreed. I normally use both the type name and variable name when defining types just as a matter of course because I like to see the type name in symbolic debuggers and use the variable name when declaring instances. Again, that's pretty much a style preference except when I need the type to refer to itself within the type definition (the linked list thing).