Of course, if you have enough diskspace (or buy a cheap HDD), you can dual boot your home system.
There's lots of guides for this here (LQ).
Just make sure you have good backups before you do it. Can't be too careful.
Everybody has their own preferred lang; you might want to look at a few before picking one.
Perl had a big history for building dynamic websites; see module CGI.pm, has Apache mod_perl & lots of support (http://www.perlmonks.com/
& search.cpan.org for loads of downloadable modules).
Like PHP (& Apache/mysql etc etc), usually comes free as part of std Linux install.
If you are going to write code from scratch on Linux as you indicated, prob a good idea to at least learn the basics of vi/vim editor, even if you later prefer another one.