I'm gonna mark this as solved, since I think "Programming from the Ground Up" is the book to have, as far as what I'm asking about. I know there are quite a few tutorial and how-to type resources online, but not books. "The Art of Assembly" seems to have a lot of information in it, even though it teaches HLA and not really assembly. The only other thing I could do, I think, would be to buy a book.
I'm 120+ pages into "Programming from the Ground Up", by the way, and it's been a very good book to learn from.